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Food science: application of basic principles of science & engineering to study and acquire new knowledge on physical,chemical and biochemical aspects of food. Food technology: utilizes the information gathered by food science and applies the appropriate technologies to ensure quality and safety of food. Nicholas Appert: food in bottle, corking, heating- canning. Clarence Birdseye: rapid freezingof fish low temperatures preserved quality of fish. Other discoveries: freeze drying, instant food, dehydrated foods, vacuum packaging, spreadable margarines. Food commodity: Meat (Alberta), dairy (Quebec), grains (prairies), fruits (BC), vegetables (anywhere), seafood (E/W coast). Controlled Atmosphere storage: slow down respiration rate & ripening process. Decreased oxygen, increased carbon dioxide. Carbohydrates: Monosaccharides- glucose, fructose, galactose (simple sugars, not chemically bonded to othersugar molecules). Disaccharides- sucrose, lactose, maltose. Sucrose- (glucose, fructose). Hydrolyzed by enzyme (invertase). Lactose- (galactose, glucose). Maltose- (glucose, glucose). Formed from starch by enzymatic (amylase) or acid hydrolysis. Hydrolysis with maltase: glucose + glucose. After glucose isomerization becomes HFCS. Functional properties of simple carbohydrates: Sweetening power,crystallization: sugars can exist in both soluble & crystalline states (crystalized from solution -> sucrose from sugar cane juice), reactants in non-enzymatic browning: caramelization: heating sugar alone to high temp (200C), Millard browning: Must be a reducing sugar and amino compounds. Reducing sugars contain a “free” OH on the position next to oxygen in the ring structure (glucose, fructose, galactose).Products are low molecular weight, high molecular weight polymers.Viscosity/mouthfeel, fermented by microorganisms, antimicrobial agents, humectancy(water retention). Invert sugars are hygroscopic- attract water from the atmosphere. Polysaccharides: high molecular weight polymers or long chains of monosaccharide units. (Pectins, agar, alginates, gum Arabic/acacia, carrageenan, xanthan gum, starch, cellulose, hemicellulose). Applications in food: thickening, suspending solids, stabilizers or gelling agents. Pectins: from plant tissues, used as gelling agents for jams and jellies, contribute to viscosity of ketchup and tomato paste, overall mouthfeel of foods, help maintain particles in suspension in orange juice and unclarified apple juice. Alginates: extracted from seaweed, suspending & thickening agents. Carrageenan: extracted from Irish moss seaweed, suspending agent & stabilizer in dairy products. Xanthan gum: extracted from bacteria, used for control of viscosity, used as suspending agent. Starch: polymers of glucose, from plant materials as starch granules (contain linear amylose and branched amylopectin). Amylose molecules contribute to gel formation, amylopectin molecules give Viscosity to the cooked paste. Retrogradation: occurs after gelatinization. Linear amylose chains orient back into intermolecular H-bonding, Loss of water holding capacity, toughening of food, gritty texture. Cellulose