Quarter 3 Notes - PsychologyNotes Pages 216 - 234Sensation - the process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environmentPerception - the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling usto recognize meaningful objects and events Bottom-up Processing - information processing guided by higher level mental processes, as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectationsTransduction - Conversion of one form of energy into another. In sensation, the transforming of stimulus energies, such as sights ,sounds, and smells, into neural impulses our brain can interpret. Psychophysics - The study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli, such as their intensity, and our psychological experience of themAbsolute Threshold - The minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50percent of the time. Signal Detection Theory - A theory predicting how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus amid background stimulation. Assumes there is no single absolute threshold and that detection depends partly on a person's experience, expectations, motivation, and alertness. Subliminal - Below one's absolute threshold for conscious awareness.Priming - The activation, often unconsciously, of certain associations, thus predisposing one's perception, memory, or response. Difference Threshold - The minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50 percent of the time. We experience the difference threshold as a just noticeable difference. Weber's law - The principle that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by aconstant minimum percentage. Sensory Adaptation - Diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulationPerceptual Set - A mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not anotherWavelength - The distance from the peak of one light or sound wave to the peak of the next. Electromagnetic wavelengths vary from the short blips of cosmic rays to the long pulses of radio transmission.Hue - The dimension of colour that is determined by the wavelength of light, what we know as the colour names blue, green, red, etc. Intensity - The amount of energy in a light or sound wave, which we perceive as brightness or loudness, as determined by the waves amplitude.
Pupil - The adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light entersIris - a ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored portion of the eye around the pupil and controls the size of the pupil openingLens - The transparent structure behind the pipil that changes shape to help focus images on the retinaRetina - The light sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual informationAccomodation = The process by which the eyes lens changes shape to focus near or far objects on the retinaRods - retinal receptors that detect black, white, and gray; necessary for peripheral andtwilight vision, when cones dont respond.