test review (geography) - 41. What is the...

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41. What is the “moment” of an earthquake? How is it calculated? Solution to Richter problem: “Moment Magnitude scale” Hough: “moment = torque” Moment = fault area * slip * shear resistance o Bigger the fault area, bigger the earthquake o Bigger the slip, bigger the earthquake o Bigger the resistance, bigger the earthquake 42. Which earthquake scale is based on approximate intensity? The Modified Mercalli Scale On this scale, what does a VI or XII mean? 43. Which of the following locations is LEAST at risk for earthquakes? Northern Minnesota; The type of soil near the Mississippi River in Memphis could be a problem in the event of an earthquake. 44. Today’s earthquake forecasts are worse than today’s weather forecasts, because earthquakes are predicted based on historical records and it is impossible to predict earthquakes far in advance.
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45. What’s a volcano? Where are they? Why there? What comes out? Where does that come from? Top end of a rising narrow region of magma coming up from asthenosphere and upper mantle 1300 on Earth, 600 active; 70 in North America! Located along o subduction boundaries where tectonic plates collide (Japan, Philippines) o spreading sea floors or rifts (E. Africa) o Isolated “ hot spots ” = plumes of rising magma (Hawaii) What Kinds of Volcanoes Are There? E FFUSIVE : fluid low-viscosity lava oozes out gently from upper mantle, in great volumes o Shape: shield volcano , gentle slope. Also: “Flood basalts” E XPLOSIVE : Gooey magma in subduction zones chokes pipe, mountain blows up, “pyroclastics.”
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o Why gooey? High in silica and aluminum. Perhaps due to grinding away/merging of continental & oceanic crusts in subduction
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This note was uploaded on 03/30/2008 for the course GEOG 1111 taught by Professor Hopkins during the Fall '08 term at University of Georgia Athens.

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test review (geography) - 41. What is the...

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