behavior and theory exam review 1.docx

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Chapter 1 Organizational Behavior Studies what people think, feel, and do in and around organizations Organizations Groups of people who work interdependently toward some purpose Collective entities Collective sense of purpose Importance of Organizational Behavior Vital to an organizations survival and success Important for people in all jobs o Comprehend and predict workplace events o Adopt more accurate personal theories o Influence organizational events Technological Change Effects of technological change o Higher productivity, but displaces employees and occupations o Alters work relationships and behavior patterns o Improves health and wellbeing Effects of information technology o Gives employees a greater voice vis-à-vis executives o Worsens work–nonwork overlap, attention span, techno-stress Globalization Economic, social, and cultural connectivity with people in other parts of the world Due to better information technology and transportation systems Effects of globalization on organizations o Expands markets, lower costs, increases knowledge o Affects teamwork, diversity, cultural values, leadership o Increases competitive pressures and work intensification Emerging Employment Relationships Due to technology, globalization, etc. o Longer hours, less work-nonwork separation Work-life balance: degree of conflict between work and nonwork demands Remote work o Working at client sites (e.g. repair technicians) o Telecommuting (teleworking) – working from home an arrangement whereby, supported by information technology, employees work from home one or more days per month rather than commute to the office Telecommuting Benefits Better work–life balance
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Valued as a work benefit Higher productivity Better for the environment Lower real estate costs for company Telecommuting Problems Less connection with coworkers, more social isolation Less informal communication to help an individual’s career Lower team cohesion, weaker organizational culture Surface-level diversity the observable demographic of physiological differences in people, such as their race, ethnicity, gender, age, and physical disabilities Deep-level diversity differences in psychological characteristics of employees, including personalities, beliefs, values, and attitudes Consequences of diversity Better team creativity and decisions, but slower team development Easier to recognize and address community needs Higher risk of dysfunctional conflict 4 Organizational Behavior Anchors Systematic research anchor Organizational Behavior is built on systematic research Evidence-based management o Not many use Multidisciplinary anchor Many OB concepts adopted from other disciplines OB develops its own theories, but scans other fields Contingency anchor A particular action may have different consequences in different situations
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