alk-sesi-3.ppt - Matakuliah F0282 Analisis Laporan Keuangan...

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Unformatted text preview: Matakuliah : F0282 - Analisis Laporan Keuangan Perusahaan Tahun : 2009 BENTUK-BENTUK LAPORAN KEUANGAN Pertemuan 3 Murniadi Purboatmodjo • • • • • BAB III Bentuk-bentuk laporan keuangan Income statements Statement of stockholders’ equity Balance sheets Statement of cash flows Notes Mari kita review mengenai Income Statement dan Balance sheet, yang merupakan dasar dalam menganalisa suatu Laporan Keuangan 3 1. INCOME STATEMENT a summary of revenues and expenses and gains and losses, ending with net income For particular period of time : For the Year Ended... Multiple-step format, presented separately of : Gross profit Operating income Income before taxes Net income Single-step format, determining the net income by deducting total expenses and losses from the total revenues and gains 4 Basic Elements of the Income Statement Net Sales (Revenues) Cost of Goods Sold Other Operating Revenue Operating Expenses Other Income or Expense 5 Net Sales Revenue from the sale of principal goods or services sold to customers Shown net of Discounts Returns Allowances 6 Cost of Goods Sold o o o o o The cost of goods that were sold to produce revenue Retailer Manufacturer Beginning Inventory Beginning Inventory + Purchases + Cost of goods sold Manufactured – Ending Inventory - Ending Inventory = Cost of Goods Sold = Cost of Goods sold A service firm will not have COGS or cost of sales it will often have cost of service 7 Other Operating Revenue Reflects the nature of the business Depending on the operations of the business, Examples Lease revenue Royalty revenue Finance charges Commission revenue 8 Operating Expenses Consist of 2 types : Selling expenses Result from the company’s effort to create sales Examples Advertising Sales commissions Sales supplies used Administrative expenses Relate to the general administration of the company’s operation Examples Salaries Insurance Bad debt expense 9 Other Income or Expense o o o o Secondary activities not directly related to operations Dividend income Interest income Gains (losses) from sale of assets Interest expense 10 Reconciliation of Retained Earnings Reported as part of the Statement of Stockholders’ Equity or combined with the income Statement Beginning of year balance of retained earnings + Prior period adjustments ± Cumulative effect of a change in accounting principle = Beginning balance as adjusted + Net income – Dividends = End-of-year balance of retained earnings 11 2. The Balance Sheet Balance Sheet (BS) “Statement of Financial Position” Consist of : {ASSETS = LIABILITIES + STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY} Dated as of a specific date Format o o Account Report 12 Assets • Probable future economic benefits obtained or controlled by an entity as a result of past transactions or events - Current Assets those assets (1) in the form of cash (cash, deposit), (2) that will normally be realized in cash, or (3) that conserves the use of cash during the operating cycle of a firm or for 1 year, whichever is larger - Long-Term Assets (Non Current Assets) those assets that do not qualify as current and take longer than 1 year to be converted to cash or to conserve cash in long run 2 Types: Physical Nature/Tangible land, building, etc Intangible trademarks, patents 13 Current Assets Cash and assets that will be converted into cash during the operating cycle or within a year, whichever is longer Presented in order of liquidity CASH MARKETABLE SECURITIES ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLES INVENTORY PREPAIDS OTHER CA 14 Long-Term (Non Current) Assets : Tangible Tangible : Physical facilities used in the operations of the business Consist of : Land Buildings Machinery Constraction in progress Accumulated Depreciation : Depreciation the process of allocating the cost of buildings/machinery over the periods of benefit (depreciable life) 15 Long-Term (Non Current) Assets : Tangible (cont’ d) Leases : -Capital Lease Investment: - Debt or equity securities - Debt classification - Equity Securities 16 Long-Term Assets: Intangibles Intangibles : non-physical assets recorded at historical cost, generally amortized over their useful lives or their legal lives; whichever is shorter (< 40 years) Consist of : o o o o o Goodwill Patents Trademarks Franchises Copyrights 17 Liabilities • Probable future sacrifices of economic benefits arising from present obligations of a particular entity to transfer assets or provide services to other entities in the futures as a result of past transactions or events – Current Liabilities (CL) – Long-Term Liabilities (LTL) 18 Current Liabilities Obligations whose liquidation is reasonably expected to Require the use of Existing current assets Creation of other current liabilities Within one year or the operating cycle, whichever is longer This includes : - Payables - Unearned Income - Other Current Liabilities 19 Long-Term Liabilities Due in a period beyond one year or operating cycle Related to Financing arrangements Operational obligations (includes obligations arising from the operation of a business, mostly of a service nature) 20 Stockholders’ Equity • The residual ownership interest in the assets of an entity that remains after deducting its liabilities – Paid-in Capital – Retained Earnings 21 LATIHAN SOAL: FINANCIAL ANALYSIS AND REPORTINGGIBSON P3-4 dan/P4-11 22 ...
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