The Bourbon Kings II - Louis XIV 1688-1715.ppt

The Bourbon Kings II - Louis XIV 1688-1715.ppt - The...

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The Bourbon Kings II, 1661-1715 Phase 2: Louis XIV, 1688-1715
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Louis XIV, 1688-1715 Foreign policy in later years (1688-97) – War between France and a coalition of European powers. France was forced to fight on five fronts : the armies of the Grand Alliance on France's northern and eastern borders - in Flanders and on the Rhine. As the conflict develops in a succession of summer campaigns, two other theatres of war open up. One is on France's border in the southwest, in Catalonia. The other is to the southeast, in northern Italy. Meanwhile two members, England and Holland (together often known as the Maritime Powers), have strong navies eager to grapple with the French at sea.
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Louis XIV, 1688-1715 The prize of the overall conflict is the throne of Spain . The Spanish king, Charles II , is ill and childless. The two great dynasties of Europe, the French Bourbons and the Austrian Habsburgs, have equally good claims to inherit his vast empire. And the rumor is, in 1695, that the ailing king's death may not be far off.
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Louis XIV, 1688-1715 The pressure of the war by June 1693 forced Louis, under the influence of increasingly moderate and chastened advisors, 1) to abandon his excessive demands and to consider returning most of the réunion territories to their owners; 2) to make huge concessions to Savoy in order to neutralize Italy, with the Treaty of Turin (1696); and 3) to negotiate with William III about his succession in Great Britain after the Glorious Revolution.
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Louis XIV, 1688-1715 The exhaustion of the belligerents and the defection of Savoy from the Grand Alliance (1696) finally led to the Treaty of Ryswick. The terms of the peace, the Treaty of Ryswick (1697) make the war seem pointless - except as a flexing of muscles for the next round, in 1701, when the real and decisive war begins over the issue of the Spanish succession .
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Louis XIV, 1688-1715 William III and Louis come up with a second partition treaty in 1699. This is generous to the Habsburgs, in that a younger son of the Austrian emperor (the archduke Charles) is to have almost everything except Italy and Lorraine, which will go to France. Charles II, King of Spain, now almost on his deathbed (in October 1700), changes his will again, leaving everything to a Bourbon prince - Philip, the second grandson of Louis XIV. A month later Charles II dies.
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Louis XIV, 1688-1715 So, Louis XIV changes tack. Forgetting the recent partition treaty, he eagerly accepts his grandson's good fortune - treating him now as Philip V of Spain . The Austrians prepare for war.
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Louis XIV, 1688-1715 At the start, in 1701, the quarrel is specifically between France and Austria - or between Louis XIV and the emperor Leopold I. Each is fighting on behalf of a grandson or son who is not next in line of succession to the French or Austrian throne.
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  • Fall '16
  • Louis XIV of France, House of Habsburg, War of the Spanish Succession, House of Bourbon, Philip V of Spain, crown. Louis XIV

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