KINS 1223 test 2 - DNA function ● code for protein...

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DNA function code for protein synthesis gene: sequence of DNA nucleotides that codes for one protein nucleotide: made of sugar, phosphate group, and nitrogenous base protein synthesis DNA dictates protein construction (determines chem + phys nature of cell) each gene represents sequence of nucleotides on DNA transcription (copy / rewrite) takes place in nucleus DNA is too big to leave the nucleus mRNA is formed next to an activated gene then moves to cytoplasm DNA → RNA 1. RNA polymerase binds to DNA 2. opens DNA helix (DNA helicase) and transcribes bases from one strand (law of complementary pairs) of DNA to pre-mRNA 3. in RNA, T = U, and matches with A (AUCG) C DNA → G RNA A DNA → U RNA pre-mRNA introns (nonsense) are removed exons (sense) are reconnected and exit the nucleus through nuclear pores goal of transcription = building polypeptides into proteins by organizing amino acids → amino acids: 3 DNA nucleotide bases (triplets) mRNA triplets are codons sequence of codons form chains of amino acids protein synthesis requires 1. amino acids 2. ATP 3. ribosomes translation
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mRNA is read by rRNA as amino acids are assembled into a protein tRNA delivers amino acids to ribosome mRNa - sorts nucleic acid language to protein language - produces segments of amino acids needed for proteins - ribosome attaches to mRNA as it leaves the nucleus - starts reading at the “start’ codon tRNA - carries amino acids to ribosomes - has anti-codons → opposite of mRNA codon tail: binding site for amino acids head: special sequence of nucleotide bases cell life cycle - length varies w/ cell type major periods - interphase (cell growth) - mitotic phase (cell reproduction) interphase metabolic or growth phase 1.G-1 or Gap phase 1 2.S or Synthesis phase 3.G-2 or Gap phase 2 Synthesis phase: S - DNA replicates itself - identical copy - Same genetic material as original cell mitotic phase prophase
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chromosomes become visible nuclear envelope disintegrates spindle fibers grow towards
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  • Spring '10
  • ROONEY
  • DNA

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