Pederson-Inv #31 Lab Report.pdf

Pederson-Inv #31 Lab Report.pdf - What Happens To Dead...

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Unformatted text preview: What Happens To Dead Organisms? By Alyssa Magee Pre­AP Bio, Period 2 Mr. Pederson January 22, 2016 INTRODUCTION I think that the organisms are still alive because when things die they lose their color.Fruits like apples or bananas are still alive, but they are slowly dying. That's why your parents are always telling you to eat your fruit before it goes “bad”. In this experiment we will find out what happens to dead organisms. What independent variables influence the rate of breakdown of dead organisms? HYPOTHESES 1. Salt will breakdown our the apple slower because salt is used to preserve food. 2. Vinegar will breakdown the apple faster because vinegar is acidic. 3. Water will breakdown the apple slower because it would keep the apple moist. MATERIALS AND METHODS Materials​ : ● 50 ml glass beakers (3) ● 10ml graduated cylinder ● 1 ml dropper (3) ● petri dishes (8) ● Apple (8 slices) ● Vinegar ● Salt solution ● water ● knife ● wax colored pencil Method​ : 1. Fill each 50 ml beaker with a different substance. Fill one with water, one with vinegar, and one with salt solution. 2. Label each petri dish 1­8 with class period and group number. 3. Slice the apple into 8 thin slices about 1cm thick. Add one slice to each petri dish. Diagram #1 ­ Factorial Design 4. Rinse out and dry 10ml graduated cylinder thoroughly after each use. 5. Method to setting up Experiment #1 a. Pour 1ml of vinegar, salt solution, and water into 10ml graduated cylinder to see how all three affect each other. b. Place finger over the top opening of the graduated cylinder and shake well to mix the substances. c. Pour the contents of graduated cylinder and pour it gently over the apple slice and then place the cover of the dish on the top. d. Take a slip of parafilm and tightly wrap it along where both ends of the petri dish join to keep any outside organisms out. 6. Method to setting up Experiment #2 a. Pour 1ml of salt solution, and water into 10ml graduated cylinder to see how both affect each other. b. Place finger over the top opening of the graduated cylinder and shake well to mix the substances. c. Pour the contents of graduated cylinder and pour it gently over the apple slice and then place the cover of the dish on the top. d. Take a slip of parafilm and tightly wrap it along where both ends of the petri dish join to keep any outside organisms out. 7. Method to setting up Experiment #3 a. Pour 1ml of vinegar and water into 10ml graduated cylinder to see how both affect each other. b. Place finger over the top opening of the graduated cylinder and shake well to mix the substances. c. Pour the contents of graduated cylinder and pour it gently over the apple slice and then place the cover of the dish on the top. d. Take a slip of parafilm and tightly wrap it along where both ends of the petri dish join to keep any outside organisms out. 8. Method to setting up Experiment #4 a. Pour 1ml water into 10 ml graduated cylinder to see how water affects breakdown alone. b. Place finger over the top opening of the graduated cylinder and shake well to mix the substances. c. Pour the contents of graduated cylinder and pour it gently over the apple slice and then place the cover of the dish on the top. d. Take a slip of parafilm and tightly wrap it along where both ends of the petri dish join to keep any outside organisms out. 9. Method to setting up Experiment #5 a. Pour 1ml of vinegar and salt concentration into 10ml graduated cylinder to see how both affect each other. b. Place finger over the top opening of the graduated cylinder and shake well to mix the substances. c. Pour the contents of graduated cylinder and pour it gently over the apple slice and then place the cover of the dish on the top. d. Take a slip of parafilm and tightly wrap it along where both ends of the petri dish join to keep any outside organisms out. 10. Method to setting up Experiment #6 a. Pour 1ml of salt solution into 10ml graduated cylinder to see how salt affects breakdown alone. b. Place finger over the top opening of the graduated cylinder and shake well to mix the substances. c. Pour the contents of graduated cylinder and pour it gently over the apple slice and then place the cover of the dish on the top. d. Take a slip of parafilm and tightly wrap it along where both ends of the petri dish join to keep any outside organisms out. 11. Method to setting up Experiment #7 a. Pour 1ml of vinegar into 10ml graduated cylinder. b. Place finger over the top opening of the graduated cylinder and shake well to mix the substances. c. Pour the contents of graduated cylinder and pour it gently over the apple slice and then place the cover of the dish on the top. d. Take a slip of parafilm and tightly wrap it along where both ends of the petri dish join to keep any outside organisms out. 12. Method to setting up Experiment #8 a. Do not pour any substances on the apple to see how using nothing affects the breakdown. b. Place the cover of the petri dish on the top. c. Take a slip of parafilm and tightly wrap it along where both ends of the petri dish join to keep any outside organisms out. Variables: Independent­ Salt concentration, Vinegar, Water Dependent­ Amount of breakdown Constants­ Light, Temperature, Oxygen Control­ No water, No Salt No vinegar Predictions: 1. If salt decreases breakdown, and we put salt on the apple and nonsalt, then dishes 1, 3, 5, and 7 should have the least breakdown. 2. If vinegar increases breakdown, and we put vinegar on the apple and non vinegar, then dishes 1, 2, 5, and 6 should have the most breakdown. 3. If water decreases breakdown, and we put water on the apple and non water, then dishes 1, 2, 3, and 4 should have the second least breakdown. RESULTS Description​ : For dish #1, on January 29th the apple slice turned a light brown but had no breakdown and stayed at a 0 of 10. On February 5th the apple slice turned a darker brown and began to get a little creamy but still had no breakdown and remained at a 1 of 10. On February 16th the apple slice remained the same and stayed at 0 of 10. On February 23rd the apple slice had little to no difference and remained at a 0 out of 10. With dish #2, on January 29th the apple turned a medium brown, grew a spot of mold and began to get creamy, the apple had some breakdown at a 1 of 10. On February 5th the apple slice turned a deep brown and the mold grew and spread further on the apple. The apple had more breakdown at a 3 of 10. On February 16th the apple is covered in mold and the glass is foggy. There was not much more breakdown, but it got a 4 of 10. February 23rd the apple turned a very dark brown, it shrunk and dried up, and is now completely covered in mold. There is more breakdown and is now at a 5 of 10. For dish #3, January 29th the apple turns a medium brown and yellow­orange, gooey, creamy, and grows a lot of mold. There is a lot of growth but not too much breakdown, so it is at a 2 of 10. February 5th the apple slice is covered in mold and dried up, there is not much more breakdown bringing it to 3 of 10. On February 16th the apple dried up and is now completely covered in mold. There was not much more breakdown leaving it at 4 of 10. On February 23rd the apple slice is now a dark brown and more mold has grown, but not much more breakdown has occurred, it went to a 5 of 10. For dish #4, January 29th the apple turned a yellowish with brown spots. There was no breakdown leaving it at a 0 of 10. February 5th the apple turned brown, shriveled up, and grew specks of mold. Not much more breakdown occurred, so it is at a 1 of 10. On February 16th the apple dried up, grew large patches of mold, and the dish began to get foggy. Little to no more breakdown was made taking it to 2 of 10. February 23th the apple turned a darker brown, and not much more mold grew. Not much breakdown occurred keeping it at 3 of 10. With dish #5, on January 29th the apple turned a light brown. No breakdown occurred keeping it at 0 of 10. February 5th the apple only turned a darker brown, No breakdown occurred keeping it at 0 of 10. On February 16th the apple slice remained the same, leaving it at a 0 of 10. February 23th the apple turned a darker brown, but not much more change or breakdown leaving it at 1 of 10. On dish #6, January 29th the apple shriveled up a bit, began to get gooey and creamy, and grew some mold. There was much breakdown earning it 3 of 10. February 5th the apple dried up and gre more mold, not much more breakdown happened but it's at a 4 of 10. On February 16th the apple turned a darker brown, shriveled up, and wet. More breakdown occurred taking it to a 5 of 10. February 23th the apple turned a dark brown, shriveled up more and grew mold. More breakdown took it to 6 of 10. For dish #7, on January 29th the apple turned a brown, shriveled and dried up. There was little to no breakdown making it 1 of 10. February 5th the apple turned a deeper brown and shriveled up, little to no more breakdown happened making it 2 of 10. On February 16th the apple turned a darker brown, wet, and shriveled up. Much more breakdown occurred making it a 4 of 10. February 23th the apple dried up and turned a darker brown color. Much more breakdown occurred making it 8 of 10. With dish #8, on January 29th the apple turned a whitish­yellow with brown spots and dried up. No breakdown occurred keeping it at a 0 of 10. February 5th the apple had no change, keeping it at a 0 of 10. On February 16th the apple shriveled up, grew spots of mold, and the dish began to get foggy. The apple began to breakdown making it 2 of 10. February 23th the apple turned a darker brown, shriveled up more and grew much more mold. The increase of breakdown took it to 5 of 10. Tables​ : Graphs​ : Analysis: Diagram # : Amount of Breakdown On Final Day of Observations (Feb 23) H​ O ­ 2​ After comparing dishes 1 and 5 we found that the dish with water had less breakdown. By comparing dishes 2 and 6 we found that the dish with water had less breakdown. Through the comparison of dishes 3 and 7 we found that the dish with water had less breakdown. After comparing dishes 4 and 8 we found that the dish with water had less breakdown. Therefore, water increases the breakdown of dead organisms. Salt ­ After comparing dishes 1 and 3 we found that the dish with salt had less breakdown. By comparing dishes 2 and 4 we found that the dish with salt had more breakdown. Through the comparison of dishes 5 and 7 we found that the dish with salt had less breakdown. After comparing dishes 6 and 8 we found that the dish with salt had more breakdown. Therefore, salt decreases the breakdown of dead organisms when mixed with vinegar, but increases the breakdown when used alone. Vinegar ­ After comparing dishes 1 and 2 we found that the dish with vinegar had less breakdown. By comparing dishes 3 and 4 we found that the dish with vinegar had more breakdown. Through the comparison of dishes 5 and 6 we found that the dish with vinegar had less breakdown. After comparing dishes 7 and 8 we found that the dish with vinegar had more breakdown. Therefore, vinegar decreases the breakdown of dead organisms when mixed with salt, but increases the breakdown when used alone. CONCLUSION Hypothesis 1 was not supported because the dishes with salt had higher levels of breakdown, although when salt was mixed with vinegar the breakdown was decreased. Hypothesis 2 was supported because the dishes with vinegar had higher levels of breakdown, although when vinegar mixed with sugar the rate of breakdown was decreased. Hypothesis 3 was supported because the dishes with water had significantly less breakdown than the dishes without water. Sources of Error​ : 1. An error in the experiments would be not lining the petri dishes well and letting air get into them because this would allow outside organisms access to the experiments and possibly compromise, such as flies laying maggot larvae on the experiments. 2. Not cleaning the equipment before using it would compromise the results by getting any remains of previous experiments mixed in with the current experiment and add unwanted variables. 3. By mixing the wrong substances in the wrong dishes could result in compromised results. 4. By adding too much of a certain substance it could create an unbalance of variables and throw off the results. Improvements​ : The things i would do differently to get better and more accurate results would be to have added more variables to create a wider variety of combinations and results to get more distributed and possibly more accurate results because the data we collected was not enough to create a solid conclusion on what variable affects breakdown. ...
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