Lesson 4 Objectives - Lesson 4 Objectives 1 2 3 Describe...

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Lesson 4 Objectives 1. Describe the size, shape, location, and orientation of the heart in the thorax. 2. Relate the structure of the pericardium to its function. 3. Describe the structure and function of the four heart chambers and trace blood flow through the chambers, noting the location and mechanisms of the valves encountered. 4. Compare and contrast atrioventricular valves and semilunar valves. 5. Compare and contrast the pulmonary and systemic circuits. 6. Describe the structural and functional properties of cardiac muscle and explain how it differs from skeletal muscle. 7. Outline the events of cardiac muscle contraction. 8. Name the components of the conduction system of the heart and trace the conduction pathway. 9. Name the individual waves and intervals of a normal electrocardiogram and interpret what each represents. 10. Describe normal heart sounds and what causes heart murmurs. 11. Explain the role of the autonomic nervous system in regulating stroke volume and heart rate.
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1. Describe the size, shape, location, and orientation of the heart in the thorax. Size: Size of a fist, 250-350g Shape: Hollow and cone shaped. Posterior surface (base) is 9cm wide and directed towards the right shoulder. Location: Enclosed within the mediastinum (central cavity of the thorax) Orientation: Lies anterior to the vertebral column and posterior to the sternum. Extends obliquely from the second rib to the fifth intercostal space.
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2. Relate the structure of the pericardium to its function. The pericardium is the double-walled sac enclosing the heart. The outer layer is called the fibrous pericardium. Its functions include: 1. Protecting the heart 2. Anchoring it to surrounding structures 3. Preventing overfilling of the heart with blood The inner layer (really two layers), or serous pericardium , encloses the heart. 4. The parietal layer is just deep to the fibrous pericardium. It attaches to the large arteries exiting the heart, then turns inferiorly to cover the heart surface, forming; 5. The visceral layer (epicardium) is an integral part of the heart wall. Between these two layers is the pericardial cavity . ●. Contains serous fluid Provides lubrication between the serous membranes, allowing the heart to work with minimal friction Disease: 1. Pericarditis occurs when inflammation of the pericardium roughens the serous membrane surfaces. Friction between the layers causes a creaking sound. Adhesions between parietal layers can result in impeded heart activity 2. Cardiac tamponade occurs when inflammation fluid fills and expands the pericardial cavity, compressing the heart
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2. Relate the structure of the pericardium to its function. The heart wall is composed of the following three layers: 1. The epicardium (outermost layer) is the visceral layer of the serous membrane. It is often infiltrated by fat (especially in the elderly) 2. The myocardium (middle layer) is composed mainly of cardiac muscle, and forms the bulk of the heart a.
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  • Spring '11
  • Anzini

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