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Public Opinion, Democracy, and Market Reform in Africa MICHAEL BRATTON Michigan State University ROBERT MATTES University of Cape Town E. GYIMAH-BOADI University of Ghana
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published by the press syndicate of the university of cambridge The Pitt Building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge, United Kingdom cambridge university press The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge cb2 2ru , uk 40 West 20 th Street, New York, ny 10011 - 4211 , usa 477 Williamstown Road, Port Melbourne, vic 3207 , Australia Ruiz de Alarc ´ on 13 , 28014 Madrid, Spain Dock House, The Waterfront, Cape Town 8001 , South Africa C Michael Bratton, Robert Mattes, and E. Gyimah-Boadi 2005 This book is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. First published 2005 Printed in the United States of America Typeface Sabon 10 / 12 pt. System L A T E X 2 ε [ tb ] A catalog record for this book is available from the British Library. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Bratton, Michael. Public opinion, democracy, and market reform in Africa / Michael Bratton, Robert Mattes, E. Gyimah-Boadi. p. cm. (Cambridge studies in comparative politics) Includes bibliographical references and index. isbn 0 - 521 - 84191 - 7 isbn 0 - 521 - 60291 - 2 (pb.) 1 . Africa, Sub-Saharan Politics and government 1960 – – Public opinion. 2 . Democracy Africa, Sub-Saharan Public opinion. 3 . Legitimacy of governments Africa, Sub-Saharan Public opinion. 4 . Africa, Sub-Saharan Economic conditions 1960 – – Public opinion. 5 . Africa, Sub-Saharan Economic policy Public opinion. 6 . Capitalism Africa, Sub-Saharan Public opinion. 7 . Free enterprise Africa, Sub-Saharan Public opinion. 8 . Public opinion Africa, Sub-Saharan. i . Mattes, Robert B. ii . Gyimah-Boadi, Emmanuel. iii . Title. iv . Series. jq1879 . a15b74 2004 320 . 967 dc 22 2004043555 isbn 0 521 84191 7 hardback isbn 0 521 60291 2 paperback
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Contents List of Tables and Figures page xii Acknowledgments xv Introduction 1 A Tale of Two Presidents 1 Taking Account of Adjustment 3 Setting an Agenda 5 Overview of Contents 9 part i: framework 1 Africa s Hybrid Regimes 13 A Decade of Political Reforms, 1990 2001 15 Two Decades of Economic Reform, 1982 2001 19 Dual Transitions: Compatibilities and Contradictions 23 Demand, Supply, and Regime Consolidation 26 Deriving Public Opinion 31 2 Studying Public Opinion in Africa 34 Competing Theories, Rival Hypotheses 35 Toward a Learning Approach 44 Survey Research in Africa 50 The Afrobarometer 53 An Appropriate Method? 55 A Quest for Comparison 59 part ii: popular attitudes to reform 3 Attitudes to Democracy 65 Understandings of Democracy 65 Support for Democracy 72 Rejection of Alternative Regimes 76 ix
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x Contents Satisfaction with Democracy 81 Wide But Shallow 84 The Extent of Democracy 94 4 Attitudes to a Market Economy 97 The Popular Development Agenda 98 Between State and Market 104 Awareness of Economic Reforms 112 Support for Economic Reforms 117
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