Lecture Notes.docx - Exams 40 MC 20 ID 40 essay Quizzes...

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Exams: 40% MC, 20% ID, 40% essay Quizzes: some in class, some in section Most readings not covered in lectures, covered in section Intro: America and Asian Americans Who are Americans? Native Americans Americans of European descent Americans of African descent Americans of Western hemisphere descent Americans of Asian descent Who are Asian Americans? U.S. citizens o U.S. born or naturalized o Consider How long have they been there? Permanent residents? (Green card) Do they want to be considered American? Permanent residents Immigrants % of total immigrants to U.S. by Region (1950-2009) Asian increasing, europe/western hemisphere decreasing Chinese Emigration and Immigration I. History of Chinese Emigration Emigration only makes sense when you have a border with limits A. Internal migration B. Emigration overseas 7th century: Penghu Island and Taiwan 15th century: Southeast Asian and Africa ( peak maritime activity )
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Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) : prohibits emigration, tributary relation with smaller neighbors, limit contact with western world o Vast majority of Chinese are Han o Last emperor was Ming dynasty o Qing is minority group following the Ming dynasty that assimilated Han culture o Government very scared of people who were still loyal to the old dynasty and didn't want them to escape, avoiding punishment 1847-1874: Coolie trade w/ Latin America 18th century: Hawaii 1849: California II. Areas of Early Chinese Emigration Why would people want to leave China? Economic opportunity Pushing out A. Fujian B. Guangdong Sanyi Siyi Xiangshan III. Reasons for Emigration Push factors Opium Wars: western world let in o pre-1839 : Canton (Guangzhou) and kehang (cohong) - Canton monopoly on import-export o 1839: opium and first war o 1842: Treaty of Nanjing - open more ports, abolish kehang, pay indemnity, low tariff, allow more Christian missionaries, cede Hong Kong, extraterritoriality (westerners exempt from law) Foreigners can "export" Chinese illegally o Concessions to other westerners o Impact on Canton and locals
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Loss of jobs Taxes raised to pay debt Farming becomes difficult Second opium war (1856) and Treaty of Tianjin (1860) o Occupy Canton o Legalize opium o Cede Kowloon (in Hong Kong) Internal Problems o 1850-1864: Taiping Rebellion Loss of farmland - farmers leave o 1850s: Punti-Hakka ethnic feuds o 1850: Red Turban uprising o Natural disasters Pull factors Opportunities overseas o Southeast Asia : trade o Hawaii: trade, work o California: gold I. California Early history o Native Americans o Spanish Empire o 1821: Mexican Independence o 1846-48: Mexican-American War U.S. acquisition o 1848: Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, gold discovery
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o 1850: Compromise o 1853: Gadsden Puchase Chinese in California o Mining o Railroad o Agriculture o Manufacturing o (get more) A. Economic development Hawaii Contact w/ outside (James Cook 1778 ) Kamehameha I unifies Islands ( 1809 ) Subsistence > market economy Land redistribution ( 1848 ) o Privatized the land Chinese in Hawaii o
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