Midterm Study Guide.pdf - History and Basic Concepts •...

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History and Basic Concepts Ways of defining psychopathology (e.g., “four D’s”). o Deviance: statistical deviance (infrequency), cultural deviance (relation to cultural norms) o Distress: distresses individual or others around them o Dysfunction: disrupts day to day function o Danger: poses risk of harm to individual or those around them Characteristics of “eccentrics.” Mesmerism . "Trance therapy" that became modern day hypnotism. Trephination. The lobotomy/trans-orbital lobotomy were popularized (Walter Freeman), then later disgraced by the 1900s. Freeman developed trans-orbital lobotomies, that involved going through the eye sockets rather than drilling holes in the skull in order to make it possible to do outside of hospitals. Connections to and from the prefrontal cortex were cut or scraped away in an effort to reduce symptoms of mental disorder. However, it was only at the expense of one's personality and intellect. Many died, developed brain damage, or experienced other complications. Humoral theory. The human body was thought to contain a mix of the four humors (black bile, yellow/red bile, blood, and phelgm). An inbalance of the humors resulted in disease. Mental illness was associated with black bile. Asylums. Providing the mentally ill with sanctuaries, rather than punishment, became the more popular option. Asylums had many patients living together in what was believed to be relative chaos. “Madness” became something of a spectacle for people to watch. Hysteria. A blanket term that was used to describe mental illness with symptoms such as irritability, anxiety, nervousness, and sexually forward behavior that had implications (tied to the uterus) it only manifested in women. Demonological view. Mental illness was historically known as “madness” and considered to be the effect of demonological possession, so fitting “punishments” were torture and murder. Moral treatment. An approach to mental disorder based on humane care, which led to the development of the asylum system. It developed partially due to the Enlightenment’s focus on individual rights. However, conditions for the mentally ill remained relatively poor. Somatogenic view of mental illness. "Monism," the mind is the brain, mental illness is an illness of the brain and can be treated with medicine (psychiatrists). Psychogenic view of mental illness. "Dualism," the mind is separate from the brain (psychologists). Deinstitutionalization: rationale and outcome. The process of replacing live-in psychiatric hospitals with accessible mental health services in the community. The goal is to reduce dependency on the institution so the patients can have a life outside of care. It was initiated by a socio-political movement, the rising availability of psychotropic drugs, and shifting budgets (in the U.S.). Many psychiatrists believe this is an improvement, but acknowledge it has left some patients homeless or without care.
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  • Spring '10
  • Fridlund,A

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