Oxidizing and Reducing Agents.pdf - Oxidizing and Reducing...

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Oxidizing and Reducing Agents An oxidizing agent , or oxidant , gains electrons and is reduced in a chemical reaction. Also known as the electron acceptor, the oxidizing agent is normally in one of its higher possible oxidation states because it will gain electrons and be reduced. Examples of oxidizing agents include halogens, potassium nitrate, and nitric acid. A reducing agent, or reductant , loses electrons and is oxidized in a chemical reaction. A reducing agent is typically in one of its lower possible oxidation states, and is known as the electron donor. A reducing agent is oxidized, because it loses electrons in the redox reaction. Examples of reducing agents include the earth metals, formic acid, and sulfite compounds. Definitions A reducing agent reduces other substances and loses electrons; therefore, its oxidation state increases . An oxidizing agent oxidizes other substances and gains electrons; therefore, its oxidation state decreases Common oxidizing agents Common reducing agents O 2 H 2 O 3 CO F 2 Fe Br 2 Zn H 2 SO 4 Li
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Halogens (they favor gaining an electron to obtain a noble gas configuration) Alkali metals (they favor losing an electron to obtain a noble gas configuration) To help eliminate confusion, there is a mnemonic device to help determine oxidizing and reducing agents. OIL RIG : O xidation I s L oss and R eduction I s G ain of electrons Example 1: Identify reducing and oxidizing agents Identify the reducing and oxidizing agents in the balanced redox reaction: Cl2(aq)+2Br−(aq)→2Cl−(aq)+Br2(aq)Cl2(aq)+2Br−(aq)→2Cl−(aq)+Br2(aq) Oxidation half reaction 2Br−(aq)→Br2(aq)2Br−(aq)→Br2(aq) Oxidation States: -1 0 Reduction Half Reaction Cl2(aq)→2Cl−(aq)Cl2(aq)→2Cl−(aq) Oxidation States: 0 -1 Overview B - loses an electron; it is oxidized from Br - to Br 2 ; thus, Br -
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