Unformatted text preview: APARE`ranging
This fact sheet provides a comprehensive beginner's guide to entries in the APA referencing system . Use
these links for more information : APA style , APA style blog and APA Style Help .
Variations in authors
APA 1 6 th ed . ) requires page or paragraph numbers in in - text references for direct quotations and encourages the same for paraphrases . However ,
most science disciplines do not require page or paragraph numbers except for direct quotations . If you are unsure , check with your unit coordinator .
A. Single author*
In - text
The idea of progress is much overrated ( Addington , 1994 ) ."
Write the author's surname only in -text .
Addington ( 1994 ) states that . ..
Type References on new page/ centred}
Same size text /no italics /no bold\
Addington , H. ( 1994 ) . Cultural cringe : A study of change . London , England :
3 . Two authors
Holper and Torok ( 2008 ) claim .. ..
life both sumnames every time the
n - text
Climate change will affect all lives on this planet ( Holper & Torok , 2008 ) .
eference occurs in text .`
Use "and" between authors , but use an
Holper , P. N., & Torok , S. ( 2008 ) . Climate change : What you can do about it at
& when in brackets and in References .
work , at home , at school . Sydney , Australia. Pan Macmillan Australia .
C . Three to Five authors
lame all authors in your first in - text
First mention : Mackay , Clarke , Fleming . Collins , and Sue ( 2006 ) demonstrate
reference , but use et al. " after this .
In - text
that . ...
Use and' between the last two authors
OR ( Mackay , Clarke , Fleming , Collins , & Sue , 2006 )|
in your sentence preceded by a comma
Subsequent mentions : Mackay et al . ( 2006 ) also found that ..."
However , it all of the in- text reference is
in brackets , use an " & instead of and !`
Vame all authors in the references . Use
Mackay , I ., Clarke , C .. Fleming , M., Collins , M., & Sue , J. ( 2006 ) . Food the focus*
for our future . Oxford , England : Oxford University Press ."
an'&' preceded by a comma .
D. Six or more authors
Peters et al . ( 1995 ) base their study on an economic model ."
Cite only the first author's sumname .
In - text
This study is based on an economic model ( Peters et al . , 1995 ) .
followed by et al ." in- text .\
For 6 - 7 authors , record all the authors
6 - 7 authors\
names in the References . Use an '8 '
Peters , C., Suzuki , T.. Corrigan , Y. T.. Najar , P.. Dudley . P., & Thomas , E .`
preceded by a comma before the last
( 1995 ) . New economies for new times . Chicago , IL : University of Chicago
For & or more authors , record the first
| 8 or more authors
six authors followed by ... and the last
Field , C . B. , Barros , V. , Stocker , T . F.. Dahe , Q. . Dokken , D. . Ebi, K. L .. ...
Midgley , P.M. ( Eds . ) . ( 2012 ) . Managing the risks of extreme events and
disasters to advance climate change adaptation . IPCC . Retrieved from*
http: // wwwww. Ipcc. chipat / special- reports / sTex/ SREX Full Report . polt\
E . Multiple works by the same author
Use a, b, C ... to differentiate between
In - text
In her first study , Sheldon ( 1996 ) supports the theory , but her two later studies
( 1999 2 , 1999b) modify this claim .*
works written in the same year by the
same author .
Sheldon , S. ( 1996 ) . Language Limits . London , England : Duckworth ."
Page or paragraph numbers may not
Sheldon , S. ( 19992 ) . Morphemic resonance : A new dimension . Discourse*
apply to the in-text reference for
Studies , 23 , 67 - 72 .`
statements about the whole of a study .
Sheldon , S. ( 19996 , Spring ) . Rules and tools . Joumal of Semantics , 43 , 23 - 45.
F . Authors with the same surname
( a ) Scollon , Scollon and Jones ( 201 1 ) argue that ."
2 ) co - authors of a work
In - text
( b ) A recent report ( Jones , R. W.. 1991 ) indicated . .. but D. J. Jones ( 1993 ) has
( b ) separate works
refuted the findings .\
In text , where it is necessary to
distinguish between authors with the
( a ) Scollon , R. , Scollon . S . W. & Jones , R . H. ( 201 1 ) . Intercultural communication
same surname , use the authors initials .
( 3 rd ed . ) . Retrieved from*
Place initials after the surname when in
http} / UNE eblibcom . au/ patron / F ull Record . as px ? P = 822409\
brackets , and before the surname when
( b ) Jones , D. J . ( 1993 ) . Review of social needs in the North West region*
in the sentence .\
Lismore , Australia : FACS .\
Jones . R . W . ( 1991 ) . Report to the CARE centre . Armidale , Australia : DOCS .
G . Author unknown\
( a ) The NSW Board of Studies ( 2006 ) advocates an . . ."
( a ) use name of the organisation
( b) Vaccine efficiency is six times more efficient . . . ( New Child Vaccine " , 2001 ) !
( b ) use title of work
( a ) NSW Board of Studies ( 2006 ) . Syllabus development handbook . Retrieved
If no organisation , use the title in double
from http : / / www . boardofstudies*
quotation marks (articles , a chapter ,\
. now . edu . au/manuals / put_ doc/sy !_ dev_ hibook _ puff*
web page ) OR italics ( periodical , book
( b ) New child vaccine gets funding boost . ( 2001 ) . Retrieved from*
brochure , report ) .
http's / news . ninemsn . com . au/ health / story _ 13178. 25 p\
1 . Citing several sources at once
Policy makers argue that the connection between science and business should
~ text , authors names are presented
In - text
not be viewed critically ( Branscomb , 1997 : Noble , 1993; Stokes , 1997 ) .
alphabetically and each reference is
separated by a semicolon (; ) .
Branscomb . I . ( 1997 ) . Investing in innovation . New York , NY : Routledge !
All authors are represented in the
Noble , B . ( 1993 ) . America by design . New York , NY : Knopf .\
reference list .
Stokes , D. ( 1997 ) . Pasteur's quadrant . Washington , DC : Brookings Institution Press .
Teaching and Learning Support ( TalS ) - Fact Sheets Page 1 1
http : // www. une . edu . au / current-students / resources / academic - skills / fact-sheets
Variations in dates , editions , DOIs and web addresses
1 . A work with no publication date*
2. d." means" no date ! Avoid using works
Shaw ( n. d. ) finds that .
One study ( Shaw , n. d . ) suggests .. .
without a date as most authentic
academic sources are always dated .
Shaw , O . ( 1 . J . ) . Reflective leaming . London , England : Faber .
1 . Edition
Writers need to consider . . . ( Heffernan , Lincoln , & Atwill , 2001 ) ."
If a source is and or later edition , state
the edition after the title inside brackets
in this format ( xx ed. ) .
Heffernan , J. A. W.. Lincoln , E.J., & Atwill , J . ( 2001 ) . Writing , a college handbook
( 5 th ed . ) . New York , NY : W. W. Norton .*
K . The DOIs and URLS
A DOI is a unique set of numbers that
Either of these formats for the DOI in your References is currently acceptable*
provides a permanent link to the
doi : 10. 717 7 / 108 482 2.305284310 ( doi only ) OR\
document's location on the Internet . The
http: // dix. doi . org / 10. 717 7 / 108 482230528 4310 ( direct link URL with a doi embedded )
DOI is located on the first page of the
Note that the letters doi are lower case , followed by a colon and no space .\
electronic article .
Remove the hyperlink ( or underline ) in a web address in the references by right clicking on the*
If no DO1 , use the home page URL for
hyperlink . There is no full stop at the end of the URL e. g. http : // une . edu au*
the electronic journal or book .
For eBooks and journal articles from the
Avoid long strings in the URL ( ezproxy ) by providing only the root of the URL e . g .\
UNE server ( ezproxy ) , only the 'root' of
Chalker , S., & Weiner , E. ( 1998) . In The Oxford dictionary of English grammar . Retrieved from*
the URL ( host or domain name ) is used
http: / / www . oxfordreference . com -ezproxy . the edit . au Hview4/ 70 _ 1083tasket
in the URL .`
197 80- 1 0- 2 8 0 0 8 70. 0 01 . 60 0 Hacket $7 80- 1 0 28 0 0 879\
Examples of some common references in academic writing
1 . Book
(a ) print
( b ) online ( URL )
In - text
( a ) Barrett and Roberts ( 2002 ) find that the concept ...
( b ) Several levels of consciousness were found ( Tart , 1997 )
( C ) online ( DO1 )
( C ) Sawyer ( 2010 ) finds that the influence of peers was ..."
I lea the Mini if available ath
( a ) Barrett , M. , & Roberts , L . ( 2002 ) . Working communication . Milton , Australia :"...
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