Chapter 8.pdf

Chapter 8.pdf - Chapter 8 Chemical bonding covalent bonding...

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P. 1 / 75 Chapter 8 Chemical bonding: covalent bonding 8.1 Molecules and atomicity 8.2 Covalent bonding and covalent compounds 8.3 Dative covalent bond 8.4 Formulae and names of covalent compounds
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P. 2 / 75 Key terms Progress check Summary Concept map 8.6 Chemical bonding and constituent particles in different substances — a summary 8.5 Relative molecular mass and formula mass
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P. 3 / 75 8.1 Molecules and atomicity Molecules in compounds and elements Compounds made up of only non-metals usually consist of neutral particles called molecules . A molecule of a compound consists of atoms of different kinds . Molecules in compounds
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P. 4 / 75 Water consists of water molecules. 8.1 Molecules and atomicity Example: Each molecule consists of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom chemically joined together. Formula of water: H 2 O
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P. 5 / 75 Figure 8.1 Water consists of water molecules, H 2 O. Each H 2 O molecule consists of two H atoms and one O atom. 8.1 Molecules and atomicity a water molecule hydrogen atom oxygen atom
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P. 6 / 75 Figure 8.2 Molecules of some compounds. 8.1 Molecules and atomicity O O C C N H H H H H H H H Cl carbon dioxide ammonia methane hydrogen chloride
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P. 7 / 75 Molecules in elements Some compounds consist of ions , while some consist of molecules . Elements consist of either atoms or molecules . All metals consist of atoms. Most non-metals consist of discrete (or separate) molecules . 8.1 Molecules and atomicity
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P. 8 / 75 Figure 8.3 Chlorine consists of chlorine molecules. Each chlorine molecule Cl 2 consists of two Cl atoms chemically joined together. 8.1 Molecules and atomicity chlorine atoms one chlorine molecule a chlorine atom cannot exist on its own under room conditions
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P. 9 / 75 A molecule of an element consists of atoms of the same kind . For example, a sulphur molecule consists of sulphur atoms only. A ___________ is the smallest part of an element or a compound which can exist on its own under room conditions. 8.1 Molecules and atomicity Key point molecule
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P. 10 / 75 Atomicity The number of atoms in a molecule of an element or a compound is called atomicity . Note that: argon (Ar) is monoatomic oxygen (O 2 ) is diatomic ozone (O 3 ) is triatomic 8.1 Molecules and atomicity
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P. 11 / 75 Table 8.1 The atomicity and the simple model of molecules of some elements. Element Formula Atomicity Simple model of molecule Argon Ar 1 Hydrogen H 2 2 Chlorine Cl 2 2 Oxygen O 2 2 8.1 Molecules and atomicity
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P. 12 / 75 Molecule Formula Atomicity Simple model of molecule Nitrogen N 2 2 Ozone O 3 3 Phosphorus (White phosphorus) P 4 4 Sulphur S 8 8 Table 8.1 The atomicity and the simple model of molecules of some elements. Class practice 8.1 8.1 Molecules and atomicity
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P. 13 / 75 8.2 Covalent bonding and covalent compounds Covalent bonding in some non-metal elements Under room conditions, chlorine atoms cannot exist by themselves.
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