The History of Cannibalism by Karoline Lukaschek...

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The History of Cannibalism by Karoline Lukaschek, [email protected] Thesis submitted in fulfilment of the MPhil Degree in Biological Anthropology University of Cambridge, UK Lucy Cavendish College 2000/2001
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Abstract This thesis deals with the history of cannibalism. It is divided into two main parts: the historical record, and prehistoric cannibalism. There seem to be plenty of reasons for cannibalism: nutrition and the taste of human flesh, religious motives, warfare, burial ceremonies, social pressure or mental disease. Many reports of cannibalism exist in various cultural areas of the world. What we know about historic cannibalism comes from the reports of missionaries, adventurers, explorers and seamen. But evidence for cannibalism does not only come from the historical record; even some archaeological sites reveal evidence for cannibalism. Several criteria exist that are important in the verification of cannibalism in an archaeological site. This thesis wants to give a review of the historical and prehistoric cannibalism. In accordance with regulation 8 of the General Regulations for the MPhil Degree (one-year course), I declare that this thesis is substantially my own work. Where reference is made to the works of others the extent to which that work has been used is indicated and duly acknowledged in the text and bibliography.
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Contents 1 Introduction 2 1.1 What is cannibalism? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.2 Criteria for cannibalism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2 Mythology and Religion 5 3 The historical record 6 3.1 Cannibalism in India . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.2 Cannibalism in Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.3 Cannibalism in New Guinea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.4 Cannibalism on the Fiji Islands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3.5 Cannibalism in New Zealand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.6 Cannibalism in South America and Mesoamerica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 3.7 Cannibalism in Canada and North America . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 3.8 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 4 Prehistoric Cannibalism 13 4.1 Atapuerca, Spain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 4.2 Bodo d’Ar, Ethiopia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 4.3 Krapina, Croatia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 4.4 Moula-Guercy, France . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 4.5 Mouth of the Klasies river, South Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 4.6 Gough’s Cave, UK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 4.7 Fontbr´ egoua, France . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 4.8 Cannibalism in the American southwest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 4.8.1 Cannibalism at Anasazi site 5MT10010 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 4.8.2 Cannibalism at Mancos 5MTUMR-2346 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 4.8.2.1 Cannibalism or mortuary ritual? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 4.8.2.2 Human skeletal remains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 4.9 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 5 Conclusion 31 List of Tables 32 List of Figures 32 References 33 1
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1 Introduction “Belief.” Odin smiled. “People believe in us. We believe in Lin Kortright; precisely one-tenth as firmly as all our worshippers believe in us. (. . . ) Oh, in the old days it was different; back a thousand years or so, he was raking in all the blood and lightly charred human entrails he could use, just from his South American clients. All it took was a little imagination and a touch of flair to see the possibilities for a fast-food chain in the Trobriand Islands –”. “Excuse me?” “Cannibals”, Odin replied, “Well, business is business, and if the guys are killed anyway, where is the big deal?” 1 This talk between Odin and Carol about Lin Kortright, agent for the gods, who gets ten per
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  • Spring '19
  • masood baig
  • Cannibalism, Fiji Islands, ocher

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