Unit 1: Matter and Bonding

Unit 1: Matter and Bonding - Unit 1 Matter and Bonding...

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Unit 1: Matter and Bonding 10. (a)What is the meaning of effective nuclear charge? (b)How does the effective nuclear charge felt by the outer electrons vary going down a group? (c)How does it change as we go from left to right across a period? (a)Effective Nuclear Charge- the attractive positive charge of nuclear protons acting on valence electrons. The effective nuclear charge is always less than the total number of protons present in a nucleus due to shielding effect. Effective nuclear charge is behind all other periodic table tendencies. (b)The periodic table tendency for effective nuclear charge: decrease down a group . (c) The periodic table tendency for effective nuclear charge: increase across a period . 11. (i)Define the following terms: atomic radius, ionization energy, electron affinity, and electronegativity. Explain what happens to each trend when you (ii)move across the periodic table within a row and (iii)when you move down a group. (i)Atomic Radius- a measure of the size of its atoms, usually the mean or typical distance from the center of the nucleus to the boundary of the surrounding cloud of electrons. (ii)As you move across a period, atomic radius decreases . (iii)the number of energy levels increases as you move down a group as the number of electrons increases. Each subsequent energy level is further from the nucleus than the last. Therefore, the atomic radius increases as the group and energy levels increase.
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  • Fall '19
  • NoProfessor
  • Atom, Chemical bond, polar covalent bond

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