Unformatted text preview: 1. Emlen , S. T. & Wrege , P. H. Forced copulations and
intraspecific parasitism . two costs of social living in the
white - fronted bee - eater . Ethology 71 , 2 - 29 ( 1986) .
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Cooperatively nesting birds are vulnerable to social parasites that
lay their eggs in host nests but provide no parental care ) , 2}$ Most
previous research has focused on the co - Evolutionary arms race
between host defences and the parasites that attempt to
circumvent them. ", ``, but it remains unclear why females
sometimes cooperate and sometimes parasitize , and how parasitic
tactics arise in cooperative systems! ! !!_... show in article*=...
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