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Unformatted text preview: Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality THIRD EDITION INCORPORATING THE FIRST AND SECOND ADDENDA Volume 1 Recommendations Geneva 2008 WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data Guidelines for drinking-water quality [electronic resource]: incorporating 1st and 2nd addenda, Vol.1, Recommendations. – 3rd ed. 1. Potable water – standards. 2. Water – standards. 3. Water quality – standards. 4. Guidelines. I. World Health Organization. ISBN 978 92 4 154761 1 (WEB version) (NLM classification: WA 675) © World Health Organization 2008 All rights reserved. Publications of the World Health Organization can be obtained from WHO Press, World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland (tel.: +41 22 791 3264; fax: +41 22 791 4857; e-mail: [email protected]). Requests for permission to reproduce or translate WHO publications – whether for sale or for noncommercial distribution – should be addressed to WHO Press, at the above address (fax: +41 22 791 4806; e-mail: [email protected]). The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted lines on maps represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement. The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers’ products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. Errors and omissions excepted, the names of proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters. All reasonable precautions have been taken by the World Health Organization to verify the information contained in this publication. However, the published material is being distributed without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied. The responsibility for the interpretation and use of the material lies with the reader. In no event shall the World Health Organization be liable for damages arising from its use. Contents Preface Acknowledgements Acronyms and abbreviations used in text xv xviii xx 1. Introduction 1.1 General considerations and principles 1.1.1 Microbial aspects 1.1.2 Disinfection 1.1.3 Chemical aspects 1.1.4 Radiological aspects 1.1.5 Acceptability aspects 1.2 Roles and responsibilities in drinking-water safety management 1.2.1 Surveillance and quality control 1.2.2 Public health authorities 1.2.3 Local authorities 1.2.4 Water resource management 1.2.5 Drinking-water supply agencies 1.2.6 Community management 1.2.7 Water vendors 1.2.8 Individual consumers 1.2.9 Certification agencies 1.2.10 Plumbing 1.3 Supporting documentation to the Guidelines 1 1 3 5 6 7 7 8 8 10 11 12 13 14 15 15 16 17 18 2. The Guidelines: a framework for safe drinking-water 2.1 Framework for safe drinking-water: requirements 2.1.1 Health-based targets 2.1.2 System assessment and design 2.1.3 Operational monitoring 2.1.4 Management plans, documentation and communication 2.1.5 Surveillance of drinking-water quality 22 22 24 25 26 27 28 iii GUIDELINES FOR DRINKING-WATER QUALITY 2.2 2.3 2.4 Guidelines for verification 2.2.1 Microbial water quality 2.2.2 Chemical water quality National drinking-water policy 2.3.1 Laws, regulations and standards 2.3.2 Setting national standards Identifying priority drinking-water quality concerns 2.4.1 Assessing microbial priorities 2.4.2 Assessing chemical priorities 29 29 30 31 31 32 34 35 35 3. Health-based targets 3.1 Role and purpose of health-based targets 3.2 Types of health-based targets 3.2.1 Specified technology targets 3.2.2 Performance targets 3.2.3 Water quality targets 3.2.4 Health outcome targets 3.3 General considerations in establishing health-based targets 3.3.1 Assessment of risk in the framework for safe drinking-water 3.3.2 Reference level of risk 3.3.3 Disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) 37 37 39 41 41 42 43 43 4. Water safety plans 4.1 System assessment and design 4.1.1 New systems 4.1.2 Collecting and evaluating available data 4.1.3 Resource and source protection 4.1.4 Treatment 4.1.5 Piped distribution systems 4.1.6 Non-piped, community and household systems 4.1.7 Validation 4.1.8 Upgrade and improvement 4.2 Operational monitoring and maintaining control 4.2.1 Determining system control measures 4.2.2 Selecting operational monitoring parameters 4.2.3 Establishing operational and critical limits 4.2.4 Non-piped, community and household systems 4.3 Verification 4.3.1 Verification of microbial quality 4.3.2 Verification of chemical quality 4.3.3 Water sources 4.3.4 Piped distribution systems 48 51 52 53 56 59 61 64 67 67 68 68 68 70 71 71 72 73 73 74 iv 44 44 45 CONTENTS 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.3.5 Verification for community-managed supplies 4.3.6 Quality assurance and quality control Management procedures for piped distribution systems 4.4.1 Predictable incidents (“deviations”) 4.4.2 Unforeseen events 4.4.3 Emergencies [4.4.4 Deleted in first addendum to third edition] 4.4.5 Preparing a monitoring plan 4.4.6 Supporting programmes Management of community and household water supplies Documentation and communication 5. Surveillance 5.1 Types of approaches 5.1.1 Audit 5.1.2 Direct assessment 5.2 Adapting approaches to specific circumstances 5.2.1 Urban areas in developing countries 5.2.2 Surveillance of community drinking-water supplies 5.2.3 Surveillance of household treatment and storage systems 5.3 Adequacy of supply 5.3.1 Quantity (service level) 5.3.2 Accessibility 5.3.3 Affordability 5.3.4 Continuity 5.4 Planning and implementation 5.5 Reporting and communicating 5.5.1 Interaction with community and consumers 5.5.2 Regional use of data 6. Application of the Guidelines in specific circumstances 6.1 Large buildings 6.1.1 Health risk assessment 6.1.2 System assessment 6.1.3 Management 6.1.4 Monitoring 6.1.5 Independent surveillance and supporting programmes 6.1.6 Drinking-water quality in health care facilities 6.1.7 Drinking-water quality in schools and day care centres 6.2 Emergencies and disasters 6.2.1 Practical considerations 6.2.2 Monitoring 6.2.3 Microbial guidelines v 74 75 76 77 77 78 80 80 81 82 84 85 86 87 88 88 88 89 90 90 91 92 92 93 95 96 96 99 99 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 104 105 106 107 GUIDELINES FOR DRINKING-WATER QUALITY 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 6.10 6.11 6.12 6.2.4 Sanitary inspections and catchment mapping 6.2.5 Chemical and radiological guidelines 6.2.6 Testing kits and laboratories Safe drinking-water for travellers Desalination systems Packaged drinking-water 6.5.1 Safety of packaged drinking-water 6.5.2 Potential health benefits of bottled drinking-water 6.5.3 International standards for bottled drinking-water Food production and processing Aircraft and airports 6.7.1 Health risks 6.7.2 System risk assessment 6.7.3 Operational monitoring 6.7.4 Management 6.7.5 Surveillance Ships 6.8.1 Health risks 6.8.2 System risk assessment 6.8.3 Operational monitoring 6.8.4 Management 6.8.5 Surveillance Temporary water supplies 6.9.1 Planning and design 6.9.2 Operation and maintenance 6.9.3 Monitoring, sanitary inspection and surveillance Vended water 6.10.1 System risk assessment 6.10.2 Operational monitoring 6.10.3 Management 6.10.4 Surveillance Rainwater harvesting 6.11.1 Water quality and health risk 6.11.2 System risk assessment 6.11.3 Operational monitoring 6.11.4 Verification 6.11.5 Management 6.11.6 Surveillance Non-piped water supplies 7. Microbial aspects 7.1 Microbial hazards associated with drinking-water vi 108 108 109 109 111 113 113 114 114 115 116 116 116 116 117 117 117 117 118 119 119 120 120 120a 120b 120b 120b 120d 120d 120e 120e 120e 120e 120f 120g 120h 120h 120h 120h 121 121 GUIDELINES FOR DRINKING-WATER QUALITY 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.1.1 Waterborne infections 7.1.2 Persistence and growth in water 7.1.3 Public health aspects Health-based target setting 7.2.1 Health-based targets applied to microbial hazards 7.2.2 Risk assessment approach 7.2.3 Risk-based performance target setting 7.2.4 Presenting the outcome of performance target development 7.2.5 Issues in adapting risk-based performance target setting to national/local circumstances 7.2.6 Health outcome targets Occurrence and treatment of pathogens 7.3.1 Occurrence 7.3.2 Central treatment 7.3.3 Household treatment Verification of microbial safety and quality Methods of detection of faecal indicator bacteria Identifying local actions in response to microbial water quality problems and emergencies 7.6.1 Boil water and water avoidance advisories 7.6.2 Actions following an incident via 121 124 125 126 126 126 131 133 133 134 135 136 137 141 142 143 144 144 144c CONTENTS 8. Chemical aspects 8.1 Chemical hazards in drinking-water 8.2 Derivation of chemical guideline values 8.2.1 Approaches taken 8.2.2 Threshold chemicals 8.2.3 Alternative approaches 8.2.4 Non-threshold chemicals 8.2.5 Data quality 8.2.6 Provisional guideline values 8.2.7 Chemicals with effects on acceptability 8.2.8 Non-guideline chemicals 8.2.9 Mixtures 8.2.10 Guidance values for use in emergencies 8.3 Analytical aspects 8.3.1 Analytical achievability 8.3.2 Analytical methods 8.4 Treatment 8.4.1 Treatment achievability 8.4.2 Chlorination 8.4.3 Ozonation 8.4.4 Other disinfection processes 8.4.5 Filtration 8.4.6 Aeration 8.4.7 Chemical coagulation 8.4.8 Activated carbon adsorption 8.4.9 Ion exchange 8.4.10 Membrane processes 8.4.11 Other treatment processes 8.4.12 Disinfection by-products – process control measures 8.4.13 Treatment for corrosion control 8.4.14 Household treatment 8.5 Guideline values for individual chemicals, by source category 8.5.1 Naturally occurring chemicals 8.5.2 Chemicals from industrial sources and human dwellings 8.5.3 Chemicals from agricultural activities 8.5.4 Chemicals used in water treatment or from materials in contact with drinking-water 8.5.5 Pesticides used in water for public health purposes 8.5.6 Cyanobacterial toxins 8.6 Identifying local actions in response to chemical water quality problems and emergencies 8.6.1 Trigger for action vii 145 145 147 148 149 152 154 154 155 156 156 156 156a 157 157 158 166 166 171 172 172 173 175 175 176 177 178 178 179 180a 184 184a 184a 185 187 188 190 192 196 196a CONTENTS 8.6.2 8.6.3 8.6.4 8.6.5 Investigating the situation Talking to the right people Informing the public Evaluating the significance to public health and individuals 8.6.6 Determining appropriate action 8.6.7 Consumer acceptability 8.6.8 Ensuring remedial action, preventing recurrence and updating the water safety plan 8.6.9 Mixtures 8.6.10 Water avoidance advisories 9. Radiological aspects 9.1 Sources and health effects of radiation exposure 9.1.1 Radiation exposure through drinking-water 9.1.2 Radiation-induced health effects through drinking-water viia 196a 196b 196b 196b 196e 196e 196e 196f 196f 197 198 200 200 GUIDELINES FOR DRINKING-WATER QUALITY 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 Units of radioactivity and radiation dose Guidance levels for radionuclides in drinking-water Monitoring and assessment for dissolved radionuclides 9.4.1 Screening of drinking-water supplies 9.4.2 Strategy for assessing drinking-water 9.4.3 Remedial measures Radon 9.5.1 Radon in air and water 9.5.2 Risk 9.5.3 Guidance on radon in drinking-water supplies 9.5.4 Treatment and control methods and technical achievability Sampling, analysis and reporting 9.6.1 Measuring gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations [9.6.2 Deleted in first addendum to third edition] 9.6.3 Measuring radon 9.6.4 Sampling 9.6.5 Reporting of results 10. Acceptability aspects 10.1 Taste, odour and appearance 10.1.1 Biologically derived contaminants 10.1.2 Chemically derived contaminants 10.1.3 Treatment of taste, odour and appearance problems 10.2 Temperature 11. Microbial fact sheets 11.1 Bacterial pathogens 11.1.1 Acinetobacter 11.1.2 Aeromonas 11.1.3 Bacillus 11.1.4 Burkholderia pseudomallei 11.1.5 Campylobacter 11.1.5(a) Enterobacter sakazakii 11.1.6 Escherichia coli pathogenic strains 11.1.7 Helicobacter pylori 11.1.8 Klebsiella 11.1.9 Legionella 11.1.9(a) Leptospira 11.1.10 Mycobacterium 11.1.11 Pseudomonas aeruginosa viii 201 202 204 204 205 205 206 206 207 207 207a 207a 207a 208 209 209 210 211 211 213 219 220 221 222 222 224 225 226 228 229 229a 231 232 233 235 235b 237 GUIDELINES FOR DRINKING-WATER QUALITY 11.1.12 11.1.13 11.1.14 11.1.15 Salmonella Shigella Staphylococcus aureus Tsukamurella viiia 239 240 242 243 CONENTS 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 11.1.16 Vibrio 11.1.17 Yersinia Viral pathogens 11.2.1 Adenoviruses 11.2.2 Astroviruses 11.2.3 Caliciviruses 11.2.4 Enteroviruses 11.2.5 Hepatitis A virus 11.2.6 Hepatitis E virus 11.2.7 Rotaviruses and orthoreoviruses Protozoan pathogens 11.3.1 Acanthamoeba 11.3.2 Balantidium coli 11.3.2(a) Blastocystis 11.3.3 Cryptosporidium 11.3.4 Cyclospora cayetanensis 11.3.5 Entamoeba histolytica 11.3.6 Giardia intestinalis 11.3.7 Isospora belli 11.3.8 Microsporidia 11.3.9 Naegleria fowleri 11.3.10 Toxoplasma gondii Helminth pathogens 11.4.1 Dracunculus medinensis 11.4.2 Fasciola spp. 11.4.2(a) Free-living nematodes Toxic cyanobacteria Indicator and index organisms 11.6.1 Total coliform bacteria 11.6.2 Escherichia coli and thermotolerant coliform bacteria 11.6.3 Heterotrophic plate counts 11.6.4 Intestinal enterococci 11.6.5 Clostridium perfringens 11.6.6 Coliphages 11.6.7 Bacteroides fragilis phages 11.6.8 Enteric viruses 12. Chemical fact sheets 12.1 Acrylamide 12.2 Alachlor 12.3 Aldicarb 12.4 Aldrin and dieldrin 244 246 247 248 250 251 253 254 256 257 259 259 261 262 262b 264 265 267 268 270 272 274 275 276 278 279 279c 281 282 284 285 287 288 289 292 294 296 296 297 298 300 ix CONTENTS 12.5 12.6 Aluminium Ammonia 301 303 ixa GUIDELINES FOR DRINKING-WATER QUALITY 12.7 Antimony 12.8 Arsenic 12.9 Asbestos 12.10 Atrazine 12.11 Barium 12.12 Bentazone 12.13 Benzene 12.14 Boron 12.15 Bromate 12.16 Brominated acetic acids 12.17 Cadmium 12.17(a) Carbaryl 12.18 Carbofuran 12.19 Carbon tetrachloride 12.20 Chloral hydrate (trichloroacetaldehyde) 12.21 Chlordane 12.22 Chloride 12.23 Chlorine 12.24 Chlorite and chlorate 12.25 Chloroacetones 12.26 Chlorophenols (2-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol) 12.27 Chloropicrin 12.28 Chlorotoluron 12.29 Chlorpyrifos 12.30 Chromium 12.31 Copper 12.32 Cyanazine 12.33 Cyanide 12.34 Cyanogen chloride 12.35 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) 12.36 2,4-DB 12.37 DDT and metabolites 12.38 Dialkyltins 12.39 1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP) 12.40 1,2-Dibromoethane (ethylene dibromide) 12.41 Dichloroacetic acid 12.42 Dichlorobenzenes (1,2-dichlorobenzene, 1,3-dichlorobenzene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene) 12.43 1,1-Dichloroethane 12.44 1,2-Dichloroethane 12.45 1,1-Dichloroethene 12.46 1,2-Dichloroethene x 304 306 308 308 310 311 312 313 315 316 317 319 319a 320 321 323 324 325 326 329 329 331 332 333 334 335 337 339 340 340 342 343 345 346 347 349 350 352 353 354 355 CONTENTS 12.47 Dichloromethane 12.48 1,2-Dichloropropane (1,2-DCP) 12.49 1,3-Dichloropropane 12.50 1,3-Dichloropropene 12.51 Dichlorprop (2,4-DP) 12.52 Di(2-ethylhexyl)adipate 12.53 Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate 12.54 Dimethoate 12.54(a) 1,4-Dioxane 12.55 Diquat 12.56 Edetic acid (EDTA) 12.57 Endosulfan 12.58 Endrin 12.59 Epichlorohydrin 12.60 Ethylbenzene 12.61 Fenitrothion 12.62 Fenoprop (2,4,5-TP; 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy propionic acid) 12.63 Fluoride 12.64 Formaldehyde 12.65 Glyphosate and AMPA 12.66 Halogenated acetonitriles (dichloroacetonitrile, dibromoacetonitrile, bromochloroacetonitrile, trichloroacetonitrile) 12.67 Hardness 12.68 Heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide 12.69 Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) 12.70 Hexachlorobutadiene (HCBD) 12.71 Hydrogen sulfide 12.72 Inorganic tin 12.73 Iodine 12.74 Iron 12.75 Isoproturon 12.76 Lead 12.77 Lindane 12.78 Malathion 12.79 Manganese 12.80 MCPA [4-(2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxy)acetic acid] 12.81 Mecoprop (MCPP; [2(2-methyl-chlorophenoxy) propionic acid]) 12.82 Mercury 12.83 Methoxychlor 12.84 Methyl parathion xi 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 366 366a 367 368 369 370 372 373 374 375 377 379 380 382 383 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 394 396 397 399 401 402 403 404 GUIDELINES FOR DRINKING-WATER QUALITY 12.84(a) Methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) 12.85 Metolachlor xia 405 405a GUIDELINES FOR DRINKING-WATER QUALITY 12.86 Microcystin-LR 12.87 Molinate 12.88 Molybdenum 12.89 Monochloramine 12.90 Monochloroacetic acid 12.91 Monochlorobenzene 12.92 MX 12.93 Nickel 12.94 Nitrate and nitrite 12.95 Nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) 12.95(a) N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) 12.96 Parathion 12.97 Pendimethalin 12.98 Pentachlorophenol (PCP) 12.99 Permethrin 12.99(a) Petroleum products 12.100 pH 12.101 2-Phenylphenol and its sodium salt 12.102 Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) 12.103 Propanil 12.104 Pyriproxyfen 12.105 Selenium 12.106 Silver 12.107 Simazine 12.108 Sodium 12.108(a) Sodium dichloroisocyanurate 12.109 Styrene 12.110 Sulfate 12.111 2,4,5-T (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid) 12.112 Terbuthylazine (TBA) 12.113 Tetrachloroethene 12.114 Toluene 12.115 Total dissolved solids (TDS) 12.116 Trichloroacetic acid 12.117 Trichlorobenzenes (total) 12.118 1,1,1-Trichloroethane 12.119 Trichloroethene 12.120 Trifluralin 12.121 Trihalomethanes (bromoform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, chloroform) 12.122 Uranium 12.123 Vinyl chloride xii 407 408 410 411 412 413 414 415 417 420 421 421b 422 424 425 426a 426b 427 428 430 431 432 434 435 436 437 437b 438 439 440 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 450 451 454 456 GUIDELINES FOR DRINKING-WATER QUALITY 12.124 Xylenes 12.125 Zinc 12.126 Pesticides used for vector control in drinking-water sources and containers 12.126.1 Diflubenzuron 12.126.2 Methoprene 12.126.3 Novaluron 12.126.4 Pirimiphos-methyl 12.126.5 Pyriproxyfen xiia 458 459 460 460 460b 460c 460d 460e CONTENTS Annex 1 Bibliography 461 Annex 2 Contributors to the development of the third edition of the Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality 467 [Annex 3 Deleted in first addendum to third edition] Annex 4 Chemical summary tables 488 Index 494 xiii Preface A ccess to safe drinking-water is essential to health, a basic human right and a component of effective policy for health protection. The importance of water, sanitation and hygiene for health and development has been reflected in the outcomes of a series of international policy forums. These have included health-oriented conferences such as the International Conference on Primary Health Care, held in Alma-Ata, Kazakhstan (former Soviet Union), in 1978. They have also included water-oriented conferences such as the 1977 World Water Conference in Mar del Plata, Argentina, which launched the water supply and sanitation decade of 1981–1990, as well as the Millennium Development Goals adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations (UN) in 2000 and the outcome of the Johannesburg World Summit for Sustainable Development in 2002. Most recently, the UN General Assembly declared the period from 2005 to 2015 as the International Decade for Action, “Water for Life.” Access to safe drinking-water is important as a health and development issue at a national, regional and local level. In some regions, it has been shown that investments in water supply and sanitation can yield a net economic benefit, since the reductions in adverse health effects and health care costs outweigh the costs of undertaking the interventions. This is true for major water supply infrastructure investments through to water treatment in the home. Experience has also shown that interventions in improving access to safe water favour the poor in particular, whether in rural or urban areas, and can be an effective part of poverty alleviation strategies. In 1983–1984 and in 1993–1997, the World Health Organization (WHO) published the first and second editions of the Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality in three volumes ...
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  • Fall '19
  • Water supply, Drinking water, Water management

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