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Probation and Alternative Sentences
A.) What contributions to modern probation did John Augustus make that continue
The origins of the modern presentence investigation also began with Augustus; “ In his
efforts to redeem selected
offenders, Augustus gathered background information about the offender’s life and criminal
history. If he deemed them worthy, much like bail bondsmen and women today, he would pay the
bail for offenders after conviction, help them obtain gainful employment, and report their
progress to the presiding judge. John Augustus is credited with being the “father of
probation” (Allen, Latessa, & Ponder, 2016, p. 98).
B.) Approximately how many people were on probation in the United States in
According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics Prisoners in 2006 and Probation and Parole
in the United States, 2006 (2007, para. 1), the number of men and women who were being
supervised on probation or parole in the United States at year-end 2006 reached 5 million.
C.) What are the primary emphases of probation supervision?
The primary emphases of probation supervision are to maintain surveillance, enforce
conditions of the probation, as well as counseling and rehabilitating the offender (Allen et al.,
2016, p. 101).
D.) Differentiate between the casework and surveillance styles of probation
With the casework style, the officer uses all information available about the offender to
create a treatment plan, and to help them with problems, provides counseling and ensures the
offender completes supervision (Allen et al., 2016, p. 102).
Supervision entails monitoring and enforcing compliance with rules of supervision and
the detection of violations that would lead to revocation of probation, but it is only the basis of a
treatment plan (Allen et al., 2016, p. 102).
E.) What is the difference between standard and special conditions of probation? 2
Standard conditions of probation come without some type of enhanced supervision and
are applied to all probationers (Correctional Options, n.d.). Whereas, special conditions are
applied in addition to standard conditions to offenders with a specific type of problem to address.
F.) List five standard conditions of probation.
Standard conditions applied to all offenders include reporting regularly to the supervising
officer, not leaving the jurisdiction of the court without prior approval, obeying laws, submitting
to searches, and paying probation fees (Allen et al., 2016, p. 108).
G.) Name three types of probation caseloads.
Regular caseloads include standard probationers who may have a significant risk of
reoffending or several program needs but do not warrant assignment to one of the other two
types of caseloads. Intensive supervision is for offenders with a high risk of reoffending or a
need to be on regular supervision. Special caseloads are made up entirely of probationers with a
specific type of problem , such as substance abuse, mental illness or history of sex
offenses (Correctional Options, n.d.).
H.) What are the two types of probation violations?
Technical probation violations are violations of the rules imposed by the court but not by
committing a new crime. New crime violation is violating the condition of not committing new
additional crimes (Allen et al., 2016, p. 110).
I.) What were the important findings in the Gagnon v. Scarpelli decision regarding
revocation of probation?
In Gagnon v. Scarpelli, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that probation is a privilege, but
that, once granted, the probationer has an interest in remaining on probation. In this decision, the
Court ruled that probation cannot be withdrawn or revoked without due process (Allen et al.,
2016, p. 110).
J.) Describe the philosophy of the broken-windows approach to the operation of
The broken window concept mimics the philosophy of community policing, that all
broken windows in the community are to be repaired immediately otherwise this will lead to 3
larger instability in the community. In such, the probation is asked to communicate with victims
and the community, hold the offender accountable, and improve and expand the leadership of
probation (Allen et al., 2016, p. 112).
K.) How do community classification systems work, and what is their impact on
Community classification systems score offenders based on their background and
personal characteristics; they are used to determine the level of supervision an offender will
receive in the community (Correctional Options, n.d.).
L.) What is an economic sanction?
Economic sanctions use money as the means of carrying out criminal sanctions, such as
fines, restitution, or forfeiture of assets (Correctional Options, n.d.).
M.) Differentiate between offender restitution and victim compensation programs.
Restitution requires the offender to repay the community for their illegal behavior
whereas victim compensation programs repay their victims directly for their losses and harm
caused by the offense (Allen et al., 2016, p. 127-28)
N.) What is asset forfeiture and why can it be called an economic sanction?
Asset forfeiture is the authorized seizure by the government of money, negotiable
instruments, securities or other things of value that were obtained through illegal activities. It can
be called an economic sanction as property assets are seized they are auctioned off and the
proceeds are divided among the federal and local law enforcement agencies that participated in
O.) Describe the results of evaluations regarding intensive supervised probation.
ISPs have failed to alleviate prison crowding.
Most ISP studies have found no significant differences between recidivism rates of ISP
offenders and offenders of
There appears to be a relationship between greater participation in treatment and
employment programs and lower recidivism rates.
ISPs appear to be more effective than regular supervision or prison in meeting the
offender’s needs. 4
ISPs that reflect certain principles of effective intervention are associated with lower rates
ISP does not provide and intermediate punishment.
Although ISPs are less expensive than prison, they are more expensive than originally
thought. (Allen et al., 2016, p. 129)
P.) How is electronic monitoring used to enforce the requirements of house arrest?
Electronic monitoring requires offenders to wear a tamperproof ankle bracelet that
monitors the offender’s whereabouts. The bracelet acts as a receiver for a radio wave sent by a
transmitter that is placed in the offender’s home and it sends signals to the supervising office
during the hours the offender is required to be at home (Allen et al., 2016, p. 136).
Q.) Differentiate between passive and active electronic monitoring systems.
In active monitoring, a transmitter attached to the offender’s wrist or ankle sends signals
relayed by a home telephone to the supervising office during the hours the offender is required to
be at home. Under passive monitoring, a computer program is used to call the offender randomly
during the hours designated for home confinement. The offender inserts the wristlet or anklet
into a verifier to confirm her or his presence in the residence (“Probation and Parole: Supervision
- Electronic Monitoring”, n.d.)
R.) What are the two ways that community residential centers are used as
They are community-based correctional networks of residential centers, drug-free and
alcohol-free living spaces, pre-release guidance centers for multiple-problem offenders in need
of intensive services. They also serve as noninstitutional residence facilities for a number of
different classes of offenders, most of whom are high-need and pose a medium to high risk to
community corrections (Allen et al., 2016, p. 137).
S.) What is a split sentence?
This is a combination of a short jail sentence and then a return to the community on
probation ((Correctional Options, n.d.).
T.) Describe the operation of a boot camp. 5
Boot camp combines elements of basic military training and traditional correctional
philosophy, particularly rehabilitation. Participants are subject to a regimen consisting of military
drills and discipline, physical exercise, hard physical labor, specialized education and training,
counseling and treatment for substance abuse and addiction.
U.) How long does an offender usually stay in prison under shock probation?
Ninety to one hundred thirty days (Allen et al., 2016, p. 140)
V.) How can net widening reduce the effectiveness of an intermediate-sanctions
Because closer supervision programs generally have higher revocation rates for technical
violations, a percentage of the offenders who might have succeeded under a less restrictive
program will likely end up in prison because of violations of the stricter rules of the intermediate
Allen, H. E., Latessa, E. J., & Ponder, B. S. (Eds.). (2016). Corrections in America: An
Introduction (14th ed.). London, United Kingdom: Pearson. Retrieved from
Bureau of Justice Statistics Prisoners in 2006 and Probation and Parole in the United States,
2006. (2007). Retrieved from Bureau of Justice Statistics website:
Correctional Options [Lecture notes]. (n.d.). Retrieved from
Probation and Parole: Supervision - Electronic Monitoring. (n.d.). Retrieved from
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- Summer '17
- barry denton
- criminal law