Study_Guide.pdf - History and Approaches(2-4 Psychology is...

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History and Approaches (2-4%) Psychology is derived from physiology (biology) and philosophy EARLY APPROACHES o Structuralism used INTROSPECTION (act of looking inward to examine mental experience) to determine the underlying STRUCTURES of the mind o Functionalism need to analyze the PURPOSE of behavior o Behaviorism only study behavior in terms of measurable, observable responses, NOT cognition/introspection APPROACHES KEY WORDS o Psychoanalytic/dynamic unconscious, childhood o Behavioral learned, reinforced o Humanistic free will, choice, ideal, actualization o Cognitive Perceptions, thoughts o Evolutionary Genes o Biological Brain, NTs o Sociocultural society o Biopsychosocial combo of above PEOPLE: o Mary Calkins: First Fem. Pres. of APA o Charles Darwin: Natural selection & evolution o Dorothea Dix: Reformed mental institutions in U.S. o Stanley Hall: 1 st pres. of APA1 st journal o William James: Father of American Psychology functionalist o Wilhem Wundt: Father of Modern Psychology structuralist o Margaret Floy Washburn 1st fem. PhD o Christine Ladd Franklin 1 st fem. RANDOM TERMS o Basic research purpose is to increase knowledge (rats) o Applied research purpose is to help people o Psychologist research or counseling MS or PhD o Psychiatrist prescribe medications and diagnose M.D. Research Methods (8-10%) EXPERIMENT : Adv: researcher controls variables to establish cause and effect Disadv: difficult to generalize o Independent Variable : manipulated by the researcher Experimental Group: received the treatment (part of the IV) Control Group: placebo, baseline (part of the IV) Placebo Effect: show behaviors associated with the exp. group when having received placebo Double-Blind: Exp. where neither the participant or the experimenter are aware of which condition people are assigned to (drug studies) Single - Blind: only participant blind used if experimenter can’t be blind (gender, age, etc) o Dependent Variable: measured variable (is DEPENDENT on the independent variable) Operational Definition: clear, precise, typically quantifiable definition of your variables allows replication Confound: error/ flaw in study Random Assignment: assigns participants to either control or experimental group at random minimizes bias, increase chance of equal representation Random Sample: method for choosing participants minimizes bias o Assignment and sampling can be done via names in a hat, computer generation Validity: accurate results Reliability: same results every time NATURALISTIC OBSERVATION: Adv: real world validity (observe people in their own setting) Disadv: No cause and effect CORRELATION : Adv: identify relationship between two variables Disadv: No cause and effect ( CORRELATION DOES NOT EQUAL CAUSATION) o Positive Correlation variables increase & decrease together o Negative Correlation as one variable increases the other decreases o
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Christopher Reinemann
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