Classical period.docx - Classical Period Timeline Seven...

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Classical PeriodTimelineSeven years’ war -1756-1763Louis XVI in France, 1774-1792American Declaration of Independence, 1776French Revolution, 1789Napoleon: first French consul, 1799Napoleonic Wars, 1803-1815Goethe, Faust,1808 (like gouda but with a t)Austen, Pride and Prejudice, 1813The Classical Era (1750-1820)Scientific advances changed worldviewoFaith in the power of reasonoUndermining of traditional authority social organization religious establishmentoAge of EnlightenmentoRise of Middle-Class workers / social mobilityVisual ArtoMoved away from ornate baroque styleoRococo StyleoFavored light colors, curved lines, and graceful ornaments.oLater 18thcentury: another change in taste: from rococo to Neoclassical styleoMaster Composers: Haydn, Mozart, BeethovenCharacteristics of Classical MusicPreclassical periodTransition from baroque style to classical period: 1730-1770Term ‘classical’Contrast of MoodContrasts both between and within movementsFlexibility of RhythmMultiple rhythmic patterns for varietyTextureMostly homophonic, but with frequent shiftsMelodyTuneful, easy to rememberComposers borrowed popular tunes
(Mozart: borrowed ‘twinkle twinkle…’: 12 variations in C Major)DynamicsEmotions expressed in shades of dynamicsUse of gradual dynamic changesRelated to development of the piano (soft/loud)The used of gradual dynamic changes (crescendo, decrescendo) is one of the characteristics of classical music. Composers were not restricted to terraced dynamics. Lead to the creation of the piano.End of Basso ContinuoGradually abandoned.No longer used in the classical periodThe Classical OrchestraOrchestra size increased; standard group of 4 sectionsoStrings: first and second violins, violas, cellos, double bassoWoodwinds: Flutes, oboes, clarinets, bassoons (2 of each)oBrass: French horns, trumpets (2 of each)oPercussion: 2 timpani Composers exploited individual tone colorsEach section had a special roleoStrings most important with violins taking the melodyoWoodwinds added contrasting toneoHorns and trumpets brought power to loud passagesoTimpani used for rhythmic bite and emphasisClassical FormInstrumental works consist of several movements that contrast in tempo and characteroClassical symphoniesoString quartetsoClassical sonatasThe movements might use different forms:oABAoTheme and VariationsMovements often contrast themes vividlyBy movement’s end, musical tensions are resolvedComposer, Patron, Public

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