EXAM 1 - EXAM 1- copied from 1-note M ICRO INTRO: Microbes...

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Unformatted text preview: EXAM 1- copied from 1-note M ICRO INTRO: Microbes are everywhere!! What is microbiology?? o Study of cells and organisms too small to be seen with the naked eye Bacteria Viruses Protozoans Fungi Algae Diatoms o Microorganisms can be single cells or multicellular Characteristics of cells o Metabolism- things going in and out o Communication o Movement o Reproduction o Differentiation- structures produced to help organism evolve (ex. Spore) # of microorganisms on Earth = 5 X 10^30 Impact on humans: good and bad o Agriculture N2 fixation (N2 -> 2NH3) Animal husbandry- rumen converts cellulose to protein o Energy Biofuels (CH4) Bioremediation O2 (oil spills) Microbial mining ( copper ore -> copper) o Food Food preservation Fermented foods Food additives to prevent microbial growth o Disease Treatment, cure, and prevention o Biotechnology Genetically modified organisms Production of pharmaceuticals Diversity Structure and Function Robert Hooke- 1665, first to describe microorganisms Antoni va Leeuwenhoek- 1667, first to describe bacteria 4 types of light microscopy o Brightfield Simplest Specimen illuminated to 1000X magnification Specimen dyed to increase contrast o Phase contrast and Darkfield Visualize live samples No staining required Image contrast derived from cell structures o Fluorescent Visualization of auto-fluorescent molecules or fluorescent stains o Compound light microscope Can do all 4 light microscopies Optimize image resolution by using lenses with high light-gathering characteristics Limit of resolution is 0.2 nm Electron microscope o Limit of resolution is 0.2 nm - 4.0 nm o 2 types Transmission electron microscope- TEM, for observing internal cell structures (0.2 nm) Scanning electron microscope- SEM, for 3D imaging and viewing surfaces (4.0 nm) Significance of being small o Microorganisms can be as small as 0.2 microns o Size affects physiology, growth rate, and ecology o High surface area - to - volume ratio aids in nutrient and waste exchange in the environment The smaller the cell, the greater SA on the inside of the cell o Nanobacteria- bacteria smaller than 2 microns (IS THIS POSSIBLE???) can everything needed fit inside a cell so small?? MACROMOLECULES 4 classes of macromolecules o Polysaccharides o Lipids o Nucleic acids o Proteins Macromolecules o All held together with strong covalent bonds CO 2 PO 4 3- , N 2 and peptide o Weaker bonds- hydrogen bonds, Van der Waals forces, and hydrophobic interactions affect macromolecule structure Hydrogen bonds- water, amino acids, and nitrogenous bases Typical bacterial cell o 70% water o 17% protein o 7% nucleic acids o 6% sugars Water- o cohesive o Polar o Promotes chemical interaction o Other polar biological molecules dissolve o Non polar molecule aggregate Proteins o Polymers of amino acids...
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EXAM 1 - EXAM 1- copied from 1-note M ICRO INTRO: Microbes...

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