BIO Lab Project 1.docx - Pill Bug Evolution By Tullah...

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Pill Bug Evolution By Tullah Grimmitt Lab Group: Chimemeka Aguiyi, Mary Quansah, Valeriia Vlasenko Introduction Pill Bugs are widely known as Rollie Pollies, their scientific name is Armadillidiidae. This family falls under the order Isopoda, and are very unique because of the way that they can roll themselves up into a ball in order to protect themselves from predators, similar to Armadillos themselves. The process of them forming into a ball is actually called conglobation. You will often find these little bugs burrowed under leaves, rocks, and even wood, and more often than not you will see them consuming leaves and plants. The ecological niche of a pillbug is a decomposer. In this lab, our main goal was to visualize how evolution and hardy-weinberg equilibrium works, by simulating hardy-weinberg and microevolutionary forces. Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium is known as the exact opposite of what evolution is. When a population is in Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium, it means five different things, there is no migration occurring, no natural selection, no new mutations, the population itself is large, and there is no random mating. If a population is not in Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium, that means that there is most likely one or more microevolutionary forces acting upon it. In our first lab, we used marbles to simulate the traits of pill bugs, and by us randomly selecting the genotypes, this would represent that random mating is occuring, which also means that microevolution is occurring as well. In part two of our lab we demonstrated selection patterns and predation simulation. Directional selection means that one extreme phenotype is favored, stabilizing selection means that the intermediate phenotype is favored, diversifying/disruptive selection refers to two extreme Grimmitt 1
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phenotypes being favored, and lastly balancing selection means that a less fit phenotype is maintained. When we simulated predation with the pill bugs, we put a selective pressure on them, which would be diversifying or disruptive selection because two extreme phenotypes was what represented the fittest of the population. Methods Simulating Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium For our first experiment, my group and I used marbles to demonstrate Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium. We placed 50 marbles into a plastic container, 25 white and 25 blue. The white represented the recessive genotype while the blue represented the dominant genotype.Without looking, one person in the group had the job of removing two marbles from the plastic container while the others recorded the genotype that was randomly selected. After returning the two marbles back to the container, we repeated the process until 25 offspring were produced. We tallied off the genotypes to keep track while the experiment was ongoing, after that we recorded our results into to different tables. One being of the observed allele and genotype numbers, and the other being the observed allele and genotype frequencies.
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