Chapter 1 - General Psychology Chapter 1 PROLOGUE: Just a...

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General Psychology Chapter 1 PROLOGUE: Just a Game? Introduction: The Origins of Psychology Key Theme Today, psychology is defined as the science of behavior and mental processes, a definition that reflects psychology’s origins and histories. Key Questions How did philosophy and psychology affect the emergence of psychology as a science? What roles did Wundt and James play in establishing psychology? What were the early schools and approaches in psychology, and how did their views differ? VOCAB: Psychology The scientific study of behavior and mental processes. Early psychologists struggled with such fundamental issues as: 1. How should psychology be defined? 2. What is the proper subject matter of psychology? 3. Which areas of human experience should be studied? 4. What methods should be used to investigate psychological issues? 5. Should psychology include the study of nonhuman animal behavior? 6. Should psychological findings be used to change or to enhance human behavior? The Influence of Philosophy Aristotle (384 – 323 B.C.) wrote extensively on about such topics as sleep, dreaming, the senses, memory, and learning. He also described the traits and dispositions of different types of animals. Rene Descartes (1596 – 1650) actively speculated about the nature of consciousness. He also promoted a doctrine called interactive dualism – the idea that mind and body are separate entities that interact to produce sensations, emotions, and other conscious experiences. Nature vs. nurture issue: Philosophers debated which was more important: the inborn nature (heredity) of the individual or the impact of environmental influences that nurture (environment) the individual. The Influence of Physiology Physiology is a branch of biology that studies the functions and parts of living organisms, including humans. Is the established science most responsible for the emergence of psychology.
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Wilhelm Wundt: The Founder of Psychology (1832 – 1920) German physiologist is generally credited as being the founder of psychology as an experimental science. In 1879, he established the first psychology research laboratory in Leipzig, Germany. By the early 1900s, many American students had come to study at Wundt’s facilities, which now occupied several floors at the university. By that time, Wundt’s research had expanded to include such topics as cultural psychology and developmental psychology. Edward B. Titchener: Structuralism (1867 – 1927) Born in England, Titchener studied with Wundt in Germany and then became a psychology professor at Cornell University in 1892. In contrast to the psychology programs at Harvard and Columbia University at the time, Titchener welcomed women into his graduate program at Cornell. In fact, more women completed their psychology doctorates under Titchener’s direction than with any other male psychologist of his generation. VOCAB:
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This note was uploaded on 03/30/2008 for the course PSYC 100 taught by Professor Budd during the Spring '08 term at Wisc Stout.

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Chapter 1 - General Psychology Chapter 1 PROLOGUE: Just a...

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