Chapter 3 (114-.130)

Chapter 3 (114-.130) - ESP: Can Perception Occur Without...

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Can Perception Occur Without Sensation? - ESP: perception of information by some means other than through the normal processes of sensation. Forms of ESP include: o Telepathy: direct communication between the minds of two individuals. o Clairvoyance: the perception of a remote object or event, such as sensing that a friend has been injured in a car accident. o Psychokinesis: the ability to influence a physical object, process, or event such as bending a key or stopping a clock, without touching it. o Precognition: the ability to predict future events. - Paranormal phenomena: “outside the range of normal experience” that cannot be explained by known laws of science and nature. - Parapsychology: the scientific investigation of claims of paranormal phenomena and abilities. o Coincidence: describes an event that occurs simply by chance. o Fallacy of positive instances: the tendency to remember coincidental events that seem to confirm our belief about unusual phenomena and to forget all the instances that do not. - Ganzfiel procedure: a “sender” in one room attempts to communicate the content of pictures or short video clips to a receiver in a separate room. Isolated from all content and wearing goggles and headphones to block external sensory stimuli, the “receiver” attempts to detect the image that is being sent. - The final verdict on ESP depends on replication of an effect across experimenters under methodologically stringent conditions which has not yet been met. Perception Key Theme - Perception refers to the process of integrating, organizing, and interpreting sensory information into meaningful representations. Key Questions - What are bottom-up and top-down processing, and how do they differ? - What is Gestalt psychology? - What Gestalt principles determine our perceptions of objects and their relationship to their surroundings? - Bottom-up processing: information processing that emphasizes the importance of the sensory receptors in detecting the basic features of a stimulus in the process of recognizing a whole pattern; analysis that moves from the parts of the whole; also called data-driven processing. - Top-down processing: information processing that emphasizes the importance of the observers knowledge, expectations, and other cognitive processes in arriving at meaningful perceptions; analysis that moves from the whole to the parts; also called conceptually driven processing. -
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This note was uploaded on 03/30/2008 for the course PSYC 100 taught by Professor Budd during the Spring '08 term at Wisc Stout.

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Chapter 3 (114-.130) - ESP: Can Perception Occur Without...

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