Chapter 6 - Chapter 6 Memory Prologue The...

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Chapter 6: Memory Prologue: The Drowning -Elizabeth Loftus first remembers the details of her mother’s death at her Uncle Joe’s house in Pennsylvania. -Later, after being reminded, she can remember that she was the one to discover her mother’s dead body in the pool. -Then, she finds out the person was mistaken and it was her aunt that actually discovered her mother. -This is an example of a memory distortion or false memory. Introduction: What Is Memory? Memory Processes: An Overview -Memory: The mental processes that enable us to retain and use information over time. It involves three fundamental processes: encoding, storage, and retrieval. -Encoding: The process of transforming information into a form that can be entered into and retained by the memory system. -Storage: The process of retaining information in memory so that it can be used at a later time. -Retrieval: The process of recovering information stored in memory so that we are consciously aware of it. The Stage Model of Memory -Stage Model of Memory: A model describing memory as consisting of three distinct stages: sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory. -The stage model is based on the idea that information is transferred from one memory stage to another. Each memory stage is thought to differ in terms of the following: Capacity – how much information can be stored Duration – how long the information can be stored Function – what is done with the stored information See Chart on pg. 239: Overview of the Stage Model of Memory -Sensory Memory: The stage of memory that registers information from the environment and holds it for a very brief period of time. -Short-term Memory or Working Memory: The active stage of memory in which information is stored for about 30 seconds. -Long-term Memory: The stage of memory that represents the long-term storage of information. Sensory Memory -Sensory memory stores a detailed record of a sensory experience, but only for a few seconds at the most. The Duration of Sensory Memory: It Was There Just a Split Second Ago! -George Sperling: In George Sperling’s (1960) classic experiment, subjects stared at a screen in which rows of letters were projected for just one-twentieth of a second (1). The screen then went blank (2). After intervals varying up to one second, a tone was sounded that indicated the row of letters the subject should report (3). If the tone was sounded within about one-third of a second, subjects were able to report the letters in the indicated row (4), because the image of all the letters was still in sensory memory. (pg. 241)
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Types of Sensory Memory: Pick a Sense, Any Sense! -Visual sensory memory is sometimes referred to as iconic memory because it is the
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This note was uploaded on 03/30/2008 for the course PSYC 100 taught by Professor Budd during the Spring '08 term at Wisc Stout.

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Chapter 6 - Chapter 6 Memory Prologue The...

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