Chapter 7 (185-204)

Chapter 7 (185-204) - Learning Prologue: The Killer Attic...

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Learning Prologue: The Killer Attic Introduction: What Is Learning? Key Theme: - Learning refers to a relatively enduring change in behavior or knowledge as a result of experience. Key Questions - What is conditioning? - What are three basic types of learning? - Learning often refers to formal methods of acquiring new knowledge or skills, such as learning in the classroom or learning to play the flute. Learning: A process that produces a relatively enduring change in behavior or knowledge as a result of a past experience. - For example, Erv has leaned to feel anxious and uncomfortable whenever he needs to enter the attic. He’s also learned to take simple precautions, such as posting his MAN IN THE ATTIC! sign, to avoid getting locked in the attic again. - The learning of new behaviors often reflects adapting to your environment. As a result of experience, you acquire new behaviors or modify old behaviors so as to better cope with your surroundings. Conditioning: The process of learning association between environmental events and behavioral responses. - Classical conditioning explains how certain stimuli can trigger an automatic response, as the attic now triggers mild anxiety in Erv. - Operant conditioning is useful in understanding how we acquire new, voluntary actions, such as Erv’s posting his sign whenever he climbs into the attic. - Observational learning, how we acquire new behaviors by observing the actions of others. Classical Conditioning: Associating Stimuli Key Theme: - Classical conditioning is a process of learning associations between stimuli. Key Questions - How did Pavlov discover and investigate classical conditioning? - How does classical conditioning occur? - What factors can affect the strength of a classically conditioned response? - Ivan Pavlov: Russian physiologist who was awarded a Nobel Prize for his work on digestion. His involvement with psychology began as a result of an observation made while investigating the role of saliva in digestion, using dogs has his experimental subjects.
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- In order to get a dog to produce saliva, Pavlov put food on the dog’s tongue. After he had worked with the same dog for several days in a row, Pavlov noticed that the dog began salivating before Pavlov put the food on its tongue. In fact, the dog began salivating when Pavlov entered the room or even at the sound of his approaching footsteps. Because salivating is a reflex (a largely involuntary, automatic response to an external stimulus), the dog should salivate only after the food was presented, not before. Principles of Classical Conditioning - The process of conditioning that Pavlov discovered was the first to be extensively studied in psychology. Thus, its called classical conditioning (it is also called respondent conditioning or Pavlonian conditioning). Classical conditioning:
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Chapter 7 (185-204) - Learning Prologue: The Killer Attic...

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