BIO 101 Chapter 10 Class Notes.docx

BIO 101 Chapter 10 Class Notes.docx - BIO 101 Chapter 10...

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BIO 101 Chapter 10 “Nervous System” Class Notes Overview: a. What are the anatomical and functional divisions of the Nervous system? b. How do nerves actually send signals through the body? Organization of the Nervous System a. Central Nervous System 1. Brain. 2. Spinal Cord. b. Peripheral Nervous System 1. Autonomic Nerves: subconscious controls of internal organs & structures. 2. Somatic Nerves: Sensation & movement of head, trunks, & limbs. Central Nervous System: Brain a. Centers of Conscious Control 1. Cerebral Cortex (Cerebrum) b. Centers of Unconscious Control 1. Thalamus: a . Relays sensory info to the cerebral cortex. 2. Hypothalamus: a. Major control center for Homeostasis. b. Regulates hunger, thirst, sex drive, etc. 3. Pituitary. a. Master endocrine organ. 4. Medulla Oblongata. a. Controls breathing and heart. 5. Cerebellum. a . Center for muscular coordination. 6. Midbrain a. Visual & balance reflexes. Lobes of Cerebral Cortex Frontal Lobe: 1. Learned motor skills—playing piano. 2. Long-term memory. 3. Judgement/right & Wrong. Parietal Lobe: 1. Sensory inputs from the Body. 2. Hands, feet, limbs are mapped to 2D regions of this lobe of the cortex. Occipital Lobe: 1. Sensory input from Eyes.
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Temporal Lobe: 1. Sensory input from ears. 2. Sensory input from smell. How do we find out what areas of the brain do? a. Studies in animals. 1. Electrical stimulation of areas. 2 Surgical or other lesions. b. Studies in Humans 1. Brain injury database. a. Observations of people who had brain damage/what they could not do. 2. PET scans of brain. Peripheral Nervous System 1. Two Subdivisions: a. Autonomic Nerves – unconscious controls 1. Sympathetic: “fight or flight” a. Increase heart rate & blood flow. b. Increase awareness. c. Decrease digestive activity. d. Response to danger or sexual activity. 2. Parasympathetic a. Decrease heart rate & blood flow. b. Decrease awareness. c. Restores resting state. d. Stimulates basic functions. (digestion, etc.) 3. Both are in competition with one another. 2. Somatic Nerves – Sensation & movement a. Sensory. 1. Deliver info from pain, temp, and touch sensors in skin. 2. Provide info from muscle & tendons regarding tension on muscles. 3. Provide positional info from sensors in joints. b. Motor 1. Deliver commands to skeletal muscles to cause contraction. c. Muscular reflexes: 1. Direct responses to sensory inputs that bypass the brain. Nerve Function 1. Three parts: a. Dendrites: Receive signals from other nerves.
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  • Summer '11
  • Nephron

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