Begin EXAM 2

Begin EXAM 2 - *Begin EXAM 2 * Macronutrients Elements...

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**Begin EXAM 2 ** Macronutrients o Elements required in fairly large amounts (Table 5.1- Macronutrients in nature  and in culture media) o Carbon Need to make organic compounds such as amino acids, fatty acids,  sugars, and nitrogenous bases Autotrophs Use CO 2 Heterotrophs  Use organic compounds o Nitrogen Needed to make amino acids and nitrogenous bases Nitrogen-fixing microorganisms Use atmospheric nitrogen (N 2 ) Non-nitrogen fixers Use inorganic compounds such as ammonia (NH 3 ) and nitrate  (NO 3) o Phosphorous Needed to make nucleic acids and phospholipids Obtained from phosphate minerals and free phosphates o Sulfur Needed to make amino acids cysteine and methionine and other vitamins Obtained from sulfates (SO 4 2- ) or Sulfides (S 2- ) o Potassium Needed for some enzymes Obtain from potassium salts o Magnesium Stabilizes ribosomes, membranes, and nucleic acids and is required by  many enzymes Obtained from various minerals DNA polymerase needs it o Calcium Stabilizes cell walls Endospores- calcium-dipicolinic acid complex Obtained from various salts  o Sodium Marine microorganisms
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Required for energy production o Iron Needed for electron transport chain proteins
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Begin EXAM 2 - *Begin EXAM 2 * Macronutrients Elements...

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