Crime-and-Punishment.pdf - Crime and Punishment Study Guide by Course Hero What's Inside readers to immerse themselves in the psychology of each of

Crime-and-Punishment.pdf - Crime and Punishment Study Guide...

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Crime and Punishment Study Guide by Course Hero What's Inside j Book Basics 1 ................................................................................................. d In Context 1 ..................................................................................................... a Author Biography 2 ..................................................................................... h Characters 3 .................................................................................................. k Plot Summary 7 ............................................................................................. c Chapter Summaries 12 .............................................................................. g Quotes 35 ........................................................................................................ l Symbols 37 ...................................................................................................... m Themes 38 ...................................................................................................... b Character Names 40 ................................................................................. e Suggested Reading 40 ............................................................................. j Book Basics AUTHOR Fyodor Dostoevsky YEAR PUBLISHED 1866 GENRE Drama, Fantasy PERSPECTIVE AND NARRATOR Crime and Punishment is told from a third-person omniscient perspective. The narrator is "all knowing" about the thoughts and feelings of any character in the novel. The narration allows readers to immerse themselves in the psychology of each of Dostoevsky's characters, much as his main character, Raskolnikov, tends to do. TENSE Crime and Punishment is written in the past tense. d In Context Historical Context Between the 13th and 16th centuries, Russia was isolated from Europe and did not take part in the Reformation, a break from the Catholic Church, which led to the establishment of the Protestant Church, or the Renaissance, a resurgence of interest in art, science, and classical thought in Western Europe. Russian society was primarily feudal, consisting of farms owned by lords and worked by serfs. The Russian Orthodox Church dominated religious life. In the 18th century Czar Peter I (1672–1725), also known as "Peter the Great," made widespread changes to virtually every aspect of Russian society and culture. During the Northern War (1700–1721) against Sweden, he recaptured the mouth of the Neva River and established Saint Petersburg there in 1703. In 1712 it became the capital of the Russian empire, influenced by the art, architecture, philosophy, and commerce of Western Europe. To Dostoevsky the city felt new and artificial compared to the more traditional former capital of Moscow. These cultural reforms tapered off, and by the 19th century Russia was significantly behind Europe. Czar Alexander II (1818–1881) once again undertook wide reforms, most notably freeing the serfs in 1861 from their virtual slavery to landowners, only two years before America's Emancipation Proclamation freed slaves in the United States. This was a
Crime and Punishment Study Guide Author Biography 2 Copyright © 2018 Course Hero, Inc. defining moment for Russia—one Dostoevsky strongly favored. Political and Philosophical Context Russian serfs were freed in 1861, only five years before Dostoevsky wrote Crime and Punishment . Young Russian intellectuals, like the novel's protagonist, Raskolnikov, were debating new ways of thinking about society and questioning traditional ideas of morality. The poverty and inequality that sprang up elsewhere in Europe during the Industrial Revolution strongly influenced philosophers such as Immanuel Kant (1724–1804), Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770–1831), and Karl Marx (1818–1883). These thinkers intrigued Russian intellectuals with their theories of radical social change. Marx, for example, believed that the struggle between different social classes lay at the heart of society and that one day society would no longer be based on a class system.

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