Diversity Part 2 Notes

Diversity Part 2 Notes - Prokaryotic Diversity Bacteria...

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Prokaryotic Diversity Bacteria (Chapter 12) Phylum 1: Proteobacteria – all Gram negative metabolically diverse. Purple phototrophic bacteria Anoxygenic phototrophs Purple sulfur bacteria, Ex. Chromatium H 2 S as electron donor Form sulfur globules Found in illuminated anoxic zones of lakes Purple nonsulfur bacteria, Ex. Rhodobacter Can use H2S, but high levels are toxic Heterotropic/autotrophic Aerobic/anaerobic Metabolically diverse therefore capable of living in a wide variety of places Most can fix N 2 Nitrifying bacteria Chemolithotrophs that use reduced nitrogen compounds Found where there are high levels of ammonia/nitrogen source nitrosifyers Ammonia-oxidizing (NH3 to NO2) ex. Nitrosococcus Nitrifying Nitrite-oxidizing (NO2 to NO3) ex. Nitrobacter Protein decomposition, sewage treatment Free-living aerobic nitrogen-fixing bacteria Reduce atmospheric N 2 to ammonia and organic nitrogen compounds Nonsymbiotic Found in the soil Some produce capsules or slime layers Azotobacter In addition to a capsule, Azotobacter forms cysts Dormant structures similar to endospores in that cysts resist Desiccation and UV but different from endospores in that they are not resistant to heat Methylotrophs Oxidize one carbon compounds for energy and carbon source Methanotrophs A methylotroph that uses methane (CH 4 ) Methylomonas Aerobic Near anoxic muds, marshes, natural gas, intestinal tract Sterols in membranes Pseudomonads The characteristics below distinguish Pseudomonads from enteric bacteria which is often clinically necessary.
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Straight/slightly-curved rods Polar flagella Not fermentative Oxidase positive Wide variety of organic compounds as carbon sources Soil/water Some animal pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa are responsible for Nosocomial infections Some plant pathogens such as Xanthomonas campestris are responsible for Necrotic lesions, wilt and rot. Enteric Bacteria Non-motile or motile by peritrichous flagella Facultative aerobes, fermentative Oxidase negative Animal intestinal tract, soil and water Some pathogenic Salmonella Escherichia coli O157:H7 - diarrhea Other examples you use in lab: Citrobacter , Serratia , Enterobacter Vibrio Facultative aerobe, fermentative Curved rods Polar or peritrichous flagellation Oxidase positive Aquatic, some bioluminescent ( V. fischeri ) Pathogenic Vibrio cholerae – cholera Vibrio parahaemolyticus - gastroenteritis Campylobacter & Helicobacter Microaerophilic Motile spirilla Pathogenic Campylobacter jejuni – enteritis Helicobacter pylori – peptic ulcers Neisseria Aerobic cocci Some pathogenic Neisseria gonorrhoeae - gonorrhea Neisseria meningitidis - meningitis
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This note was uploaded on 03/30/2008 for the course BIOL 2051 taught by Professor Brininstool during the Fall '07 term at LSU.

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Diversity Part 2 Notes - Prokaryotic Diversity Bacteria...

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