EIAConcept, Necessity & ScopeS. Rizwana Hasan
EIAEIAEIA is a systematic process to identify, predictand evaluatethe environmental effects of proposed actions and projects. A broad definition of environment is adopted. Whenever appropriate social, cultural and health effects are also considered as an integral part of EIA.Finally, particular attention is given in EIA for preventing, mitigating and offsetting the significant adverse effects of proposed undertakings
DefinitionDefinitionIt is a planning and management tool for sustainable development that seeks to identify the type, magnitude and probability of environmental and social changes likely to occur as direct or indirect result of a project or policy and to design the possible mitigation procedure (Vanclay and Bronstein, 1995; Harvey 1998; Momtaz et al., 1998; Thomas, 1998)
EIA is a tool that is applied…•Before major decisions are taken and when all alternatives are still open;•To inform all stages of decision making, including final approval and the establishment of conditions for project implementation;•With public participation and implementation;•To integrate environmental considerations and safeguards into all phases of project design, construction and operation
Necessity of EIA To examine the environmental consequences of proposed development projects, programmes, policies & suggest relevant management actions;To establish the measures necessary to avoid, minimize or offset predicted adverse impacts and, where appropriate, to incorporate these into an environmental management plan or system;To ensure that environmental considerations are explicitly addressed and incorporated into the development decision making process;
Necessity…•To anticipate and avoid, minimize or offset the adverse significant biophysical, social and other relevant effects of development proposals;•To protect the productivity and capacity of natural systems and the ecological processes which maintain their functions; and•To promote development that is sustainable and optimize resource use and management opportunities.
HistoryThe National Environmental Policy Act 1969 of USA is the legislative basis for EIA. The policy was the result of wide spread recognition in the 1960s that some major environmental problems were created by the government’s projects (power stations, dams and reservoirs, industrial complexes).The legislation made mandatory to assess the environmental consequences of all projects by federal agencies. In 1990s, many developed and some developing countries designed their EIA legislation. e.g. New Zealand (1991), Canada (1995), Australia (1999), Vietnam (1993), Uganda (1994), Ecuador (1997). Today, EIA is firmly established in planning process in many of these countries.
Global and national status on EIABy 1996, more than 100 countries had EIA systemsNow, at least 120 countries have EIA systems Bangladesh also requires EIA for industries/projects belonging to the ‘red’ categoryPertinent provisions: Sections 12 and 20 of the ECAThe ECR (Rule 7)
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- Environmental impact assessment, Environmental impact statement, National Environmental Policy Act, EIA