Chapter 5

Chapter 5 - Chapter 5 4 types of macromolecules...

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Chapter 5 4 types of macromolecules: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids Polymers – long molecules that consist of building blocks linked by covalent bonds (lipid is an exception to polymers) Monomers are repeating units that serve as building blocks Condensation/ Dehydration rxn – monomers are connected by a reaction in which two molecules are covalently bonded to each other through lost of water molecule Hydrolysis – bond between monomers are broken by addition of water Carbohydrates – simplest is monosaccharide, ex: glucose. It contains carbonyl and hydroxyl groups and monosaccharide are good nutrients for cells Disaccharides’ – two mono joined by glycosidic linkage – (a dehydration rxn, ex; fructose and lactose) Polysaccharides – serve as storage material or as buldig materials for structures that protects cells, ex: starch( plants) and cellulose (cell wall) and glycogen (animals) Chitin – a carbohydrate that is present in insects exoskeletons, not digested by humans. Lipids – they have little or no affinity for water, example: Fats – formed by glycerol and fatty acids Triaglycerol – 3 fatty acids linked with glycerol Saturated fatty acid – no double bonds between carbon atoms, leads to cardiovascular diseases, trans behaves like sat fat which is solid and is bad for us Unsaturated fatty acid – has double bonds, cis unsaturated , do not solidify, good for health Phosolipids – 2 fatty acids attached to glycerol and the 3 rd hydroxyl group is attached to phosphate The tails are hydrophobic and the heads are hydrophilic – form bilayer together
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Phospholipids are the major components of cell membranes , amphitatic (both hydrophobic and hydrophilic) Steroids – lipids with carbon skeleton of four fused rings ex: cholesterol : 2 types HDL (good) AND LDL (bad) Proteins – subunits are amino acids and they can have carboxyl (C-terminus) groups, r groups and amino groups (n-terminus) , (see pg 79), R-groups decide if protein is non- polar or polar, polymers are known as polypeptides A peptide bond is 2 amino acids with carboxyl groups, adjacent together joined by dehydration Primary - unique sequence of amino acids, Secondary – portions of proteins fold over each other , there is a helix and pleated sheet (types of folds), tertiary – entire protein folds and interacts with the R groups quaternary – 2 or more multi polypeptide chain forms one functional macromolecule
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This note was uploaded on 03/30/2008 for the course BIOL 1107 taught by Professor Armstrong during the Fall '07 term at UGA.

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Chapter 5 - Chapter 5 4 types of macromolecules...

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