Anthropology Notes Sp - 2017.docx - *What is Anthropology Anthropos = man ology = study Fields of anthropology*cultural anthropology = studies human

Anthropology Notes Sp - 2017.docx - *What is Anthropology...

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*What is Anthropology? Anthropos = man + ology = study Fields of anthropology * cultural anthropology = studies human behavior patterns within groups * physical anthropology = studies physical characteristics and behaviors of humans, primates, and proto-primates * archeology = studies the evolutionary history of humans and their ancestors through material remains * linguistics = the study of the movement and development of languages and other means of human communication * applied anthropology = practical application of anthropological principles and knowledge to contemporary situations What is culture? * culture = 1) ALL the behaviors and beliefs that distinguish one human group from another, every behavior within a group that causes members of that group to feel they are part of it. EX: language, dress, arts, work, marriage customs, diet, etc. Characteristics of Culture so by definition then +culture is shared = must be more than one person +culture is somewhat independent of nature. 1
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EX. you must get from one place to another, but how? You must eat, but what? +culture relies on *symbols = arbitrary actions or objects that have assigned and understood significance EX: flag, cross +culture is learned = * enculturation = learning how to ‘fit in’ to your culture, who you are +culture is integrated = *holism . loss of any element within a culture can alter the entire culture EX: machetes, cars, EX: Martin Luther ( obsessive compulsive) counted tiles and cracks, recited certain prayers an exact number of times each day, = created an alternate religion!! +culture is adaptive. it can change to suit new circumstances, EX. domestication of grain, a new idea or invention, new neighbors +culture is transmitted. questions about this EX: pizza, surfboards, salsa music *Microcultures * class = amount of access to and control of *resources * race = an individuals biological heritage * ethnicity = the cultural identity accepted by or assigned to an individual or group * gender = sexual *roles and expectations assigned to an individual 2
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* age = how old you are and what that means * institutions = organized and collective processes that serve to promote a culture’s ‘purposes’ EX: church, school, hospital, congress, senior prom Methods & Theory * ethnography = culture writing. Describing a culture, everything you notice about them, as completely as possible. earliest ‘ethnographers’ were pirates, sailors, adventurers, tourists * ethnology = X-cultural comparison of cultural features, looking for contrasts and similarities between groups EX: foraging or planting strategy, marriage rules * emic = the culture’s own view of themselves ++ we are ‘the people’, everyone else is not * etic = outsider’s view of a culture ++ generally more technical and critical, we notice things that they take for granted * ethnocentrism = my culture is better than yours ++ a gut reaction that something is ‘wrong’ with them, anthropologists aren’t supposed to do this * cultural relativism = one culture is as good as another ++ accepting what they do as justified, assuming that they have good reasons for their actions,,, remember, they have made it so far under circumstances that WE might not survive 3
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