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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 11 Ligands are ions, atoms or molecules that donate a pair of electrons through covalent bonds Types of signaling: Local paracrine which is a few cells away and a message can be reached, autocrine send message to itself, synaptic send messaged within a micrometer, endocrine send signal throughout the body Rules for cell signaling not all cells ca receive a given signal, different cells can respond to the same signals in different ways, a signal cell can respond to multiple signals, signals are usually short and fast and small signals go a long way. 3 stages of cell signaling reception, transduction and response Reception this is the targets cells detection of a signal molecule coming from outside the cell Transduction this stage converts the signal to a form that can bring about a specific cellular response Response any imaginable cellular activity can come from a signal Intracellular proteins found in the cytoplasm, hydrophobic Transcription factors control which genes are turned on Series of different molecules in a pathway that are phosphorylated - cascade Second messengers are water soluble ions that spread through diffusion Chapter 9 : Cellular Respiration 4 stages of CR glycolysis, transport of glycolysis products into mitochondira; krebs cycle and electron transport chain Glycolysis 1 st step: burn ATP to overcome activation energy 2 nd step: gluclose splits in half and forms 2 three carbon sugars , broken down and converted into pyruvic acid , NADH and ATP are made...
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This note was uploaded on 03/30/2008 for the course BIOL 1107 taught by Professor Armstrong during the Fall '07 term at University of Georgia Athens.
- Fall '07