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Chapter 11 - Chapter 11 Ligands are ions atoms or molecules...

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Chapter 11 Ligands are ions, atoms or molecules that donate a pair of electrons through covalent bonds Types of signaling: Local – paracrine which is a few cells away and a message can be reached, autocrine – send message to itself, synaptic – send messaged within a micrometer, endocrine – send signal throughout the body Rules for cell signaling – not all cells ca receive a given signal, different cells can respond to the same signals in different ways, a signal cell can respond to multiple signals, signals are usually short and fast and small signals go a long way. 3 stages of cell signaling – reception, transduction and response Reception – this is the target’s cells detection of a signal molecule coming from outside the cell Transduction – this stage converts the signal to a form that can bring about a specific cellular response Response – any imaginable cellular activity can come from a signal Intracellular proteins – found in the cytoplasm, hydrophobic Transcription factors – control which genes are turned on Series of different molecules in a pathway that are phosphorylated - cascade Second messengers are water soluble ions that spread through diffusion Chapter 9 : Cellular Respiration 4 stages of CR – glycolysis, transport of glycolysis products into mitochondira; krebs cycle and electron transport chain Glycolysis – 1 st step: burn ATP to overcome activation energy 2 nd step: gluclose splits in half and
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