BS110 Lecture 4 - What do genes do? Wed Jan 23, 2008 What...

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What do genes do? Wed Jan 23, 2008
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What do genes do? Genes code for proteins Proteins affect how an organism looks and functions
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12.2 How Does Information Flow from Genes to Proteins? Expression of a gene to form a protein (polypeptide) involves 2 processes: Transcription —copies information from gene to a sequence of RNA. Translation —converts RNA sequence to amino acid sequence.
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How does RNA (Ribonuleic adic) differ from DNA? RNA, ribonucleic acid differs from DNA: Usually one strand The sugar is ribose Contains uracil (U) instead of thymine (T) RNA has different functions in the cell
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Figure 12.2 The Central Dogma messenger RNA ( mRNA ) forms as a complementary copy of DNA and carries information to the cytoplasm. This process is transcription . transfer RNA ( tRNA ). molecules that carry amino acids line up on mRNA in proper sequence and form the polypeptide chain This process is translation
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Figure 12.3 From Gene to Protein
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Figure 12.4 RNA Polymerase
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Figure 12.5 DNA Is Transcribed to Form RNA (A)
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Figure 12.5 DNA Is Transcribed to Form RNA (B)
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Figure 12.5 DNA Is Transcribed to Form RNA (C)
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12.3 How Is the Information Content in DNA Transcribed to Produce RNA? The genetic code : specifies which amino acids will be used to build a protein Codon : a sequence of three bases. Each codon specifies a particular amino acid. Start codon : AUG—initiation signal for translation
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Figure 12.6 The Genetic Code
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12.3 How Is the Information Content in DNA Transcribed to Produce RNA? For most amino acids, there is more than one
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This note was uploaded on 03/30/2008 for the course BS 110 taught by Professor S.lawrence during the Spring '07 term at Michigan State University.

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BS110 Lecture 4 - What do genes do? Wed Jan 23, 2008 What...

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