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Done estimated finish: 40min left Autism Spectrum Disorders / Introduction Introduction Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) refers to a group of developmental disorders that include a spectrum, or wide range, of symptoms and disabilities. Nursing care focuses not only on the patient with ASD, but also the family members who require education and support to help raise an autistic child. Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to: Determine the management of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders using the nursing process. Previous Next Done estimated finish: 38min left Autism Spectrum Disorders / Overview of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Children and Adolescents Overview Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) typically appears during a child’s first three years of life and affect the child’s social, communication, and behavioral development. ASD affects how the child relates to others and ranges in severity from mild to severe. Behaviors associated with ASD include: Stereotypical repetitive speech
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Use of unusual objects Strict adherence to routines Fixation with particular objects Hypo- or hyper-reactivity to sensory input Extreme resistance to change Parents typically first notice symptoms when the infant fails to be socially responsive through eye contact and facial expressions. The infant tends to be disinterested in others. The symptoms develop throughout childhood and impact left hemispheric functions, such as language, logic, and reasoning. Some children may improve with age, but adolescence tends to be a trying time with some patients deteriorating during puberty. Previous Next Done estimated finish: 37min left Autism Spectrum Disorders / Overview of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Children and Adolescents Etiology and Epidemiology The exact cause of ASD is not currently understood, but scientists offer several theories regarding its cause. Etiology Most researchers agree that ASD is most likely caused by a combination of complex genetic, neurologic, metabolic, immunologic, and environmental factors, as well as complications during birth. Genetic causes that have been linked to ASD include rubella in the pregnant mother, tuberous sclerosis, and Fragile X syndrome. Possible metabolic factors include oxidative stress and metabolic impairment. Other possible causes include encephalitis and untreated phenylketonuria (PKU). An environmental factor that could be a cause of ASD includes parental exposure to the chemicals thalidomide and valproic acid. Identical twins are more likely to be affected than fraternal twins. In a family with one autistic child, the chance of having another autistic child is one in 20 (5 percent), which is much higher than in the non-affected population. Food sensitivity, food additives, excessive sugar, vaccines, and allergies do not cause autism.
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  • Spring '17
  • Mary Radeke
  • Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

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