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Notes Test 2 - CHAPTER MARIJUANA Cannabinoid family o...

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C HAPTER HAPTER ## ## M M ARIJUANA ARIJUANA Cannabinoid family o Cannabis sativa - leaves & _______ 80 identified cannabinoids - stalks ∙ been actively used for clothes, ropes, shoes, boxes, etc. for thousands of years ∙ plant grows anywhere o Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol ( _____ ) - major psychoactive cannabinoid - identified & isolated in _____ Drug of its own class o Mixture of effects: 1. ________ with no risk of breath suppression or dying 2. ________ but not enough to be called a stimulant 3. ________ at high doses but structure does not resemble LCD or any other hallucinogens 4. ________ (1) effects are mild (2) pharmacologically not related to opiates or opiate-like drugs Marijuana history o Antimarijuana campaign o Two major factors - failure of the ________ - prejudice against ________ ________ o Marijuana dangers – highly publicized - a “killer weed” - movies and commercials “Reefer Madness” “Marijuana: Weeds with roots in hell” o The Marijuana Tax Act ( ___ ) o 1942 – removed from ________ o Two major theories - introduced to support the campaign Pharmacological violence theory Gateway theory o 1970 – Schedule ________ o Today - still classified as a schedule I drug - getaway theory is still popular Pharmacokinetics o Administration inhalation or ingestion average joint: ________ of THC; 5 -10 mg – absorbed behavioral effects - start ________ after smoking begins - last no longer than 2-3 hours o Distribution:
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________ to all organs (fatty) more concentration of THC in the organs with significant concentrations of fat easily crosses ________ & ________ o Metabolism slow Half-life – 30 hrs - chronic smokers accumulate THC intensified & prolonged effects of the subsequently smoked marijuana - a “ ________ ________ Pharmacodynamics o Cannabinoid receptors o ________ (1) found mostly in the brain: the amygdala, basal ganglia, brain stem, cerebellum, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus, nucleus accumbens, and spinal cord (2) associated with behavioral & cognitive effects of marijuana o ________ o found mostly outside of the brain (2) responsible for the immune effects Acute physiological effects o (Relatively minor) 1. ________ heart beat 2. Thirst 3. ________ appetite 4. ________ responsiveness - differ depending on the culture - recent studies: males → differential response depending on the dose Acute psychological effects o Euphoria & well-being o Dreaminess o ________ impairment o ________ alterations - sharpened sense of sight & sound - increased awareness of surroundings - may find trivial events funny - hallucinations with the higher doses o ________ changes - feeling that became more creative - feeling of time slowing down o Significant deficits in behavior ________ impairment Reaction stays the same but ability to attend to ________ signals ↓ with chronic & heavy use impairments in sensory-motor performance & memory persist well beyond subjective feelings of intoxication Chronic effects o Withdrawal Onset - 48 hours
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Lasts – 2-10 days Symptoms Marijuana ________ Irritability Sleep & appetite Other symptoms ____ % of users Treatment - ________ o Asthma and other breathing difficulties o Lung cancer: Maybe?
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