ISB Midterm 2 Review

ISB Midterm 2 Review - ISB 201 Exam 2 Review Guide Lecture...

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ISB 201 Exam 2 Review Guide Lecture 8: Evolution Uniformitarianism: all phenomena observed today have occurred at the same rate and manner throughout time. Phylogenetic tree: shows history of a species and its ancestors, evolution of species. Shows genetic relationships in current existing speies. Earth is 4.2-6 billion years old Evolutionary theories: Widely used to interpret the past and the present, and even to predict the future. Reveals connections between geological records, fossil records, and organismal diversity. Evolutionary thought comes from out ability to recognize variation and change in the world around us. 19th Century, New Theories of Orgin Scientist use new evidence to change the traditional belief of a single creation event. o Biogeography Size of the known world expands enormously Discovery of new species in unknown places could not be explained by traditional beliefs. How were these new species able to get to these places? o Comparative Morphology Study of similarities and differences in body structure of major groups Animals as different as whales and bats have similar bones in forelimbs Some body parts have no function All vertebrates share similar forms o Geological Discoveries Similar rock layers throughout world, some layers contain fossils Deeper layers contain simpler fossils than shallow layers Many fossils are related to modern species Why aren’t modern animals in all the layers? Conflicts with the belief that all life was designed and forged in a single creation event
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Darwin’s Voyage: Five year, around the world trip on the Beagle. Darwin collected and examined species as the ship’s naturalist. Galapagos Islands: Volcanic islands far off coast of Ecuador All inhabitants are descended from species that arrived on islands from elsewhere Isolation resulted in variations unique to these islands Galapagos Finches: Darwin observed finches with a variety of lifestyles and body forms On his return he learned that there were 13 species He attempted to correlate variations in their traits with environmental challenges Lyell’s Principles of Geology Subtle, repetitive processes of change, had shaped Earth Challenged the view that Earth was only 6,000 years old Thomas Malthus: Struggle to Survive Argued that as population size increases, resources dwindle, the struggle to live intensifies and conflict increases Basics of Natural Selection (Capacity and Competition) All populations have the capacity to increase in numbers No population can increase indefinitely Eventually, the individuals of a population will end up competing for resources The alleles that produce the most successful phenotypes will increase in the population Less successful alleles will become less common Changes lead to increased fitness in the species Species will increase adaptation to a specific environment Cell Theory:
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This note was uploaded on 03/30/2008 for the course ISB 211 taught by Professor Whalon during the Spring '08 term at Michigan State University.

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ISB Midterm 2 Review - ISB 201 Exam 2 Review Guide Lecture...

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