Exam I Review

Exam I Review - Class 1: Definitions and Perspectives 1....

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Class 1: Definitions and Perspectives 1. What is Sociological Criminology? a. Emphasizes the social root of the crime. 2. What is Structural Criminology? a. emphasizes role of communities and influence of social location (race/ethnicity, gender, social class, and age—those are elements of social structure) 3. What are the basic principles of consensus and conflict approaches to explaining crime? a. Consensus Approaches (Durkheim) i. Agreement in opinion on social norms of behavior ii. Because people agree on how to act, they follow society’s rules because they have internalized these norms, don’t follow laws out of fear of punishment iii. Crime is any behavior that violates a criminal law; criminal law represents and protects the interests of all members of society. iv. When crime occurs, this constitutes a norm violation, and punishment of behavior is necessary to ensure social stability (maintains social order) b. Conflict Approaches (Marx and Engels) i. Disagreement on norms of society reflecting position in social structure based on inequality in wealth and power ii. Law defined crimes represent the views of those with power and keep those without power at the bottom of the social structure iii. Crime definitions are more problematic, why do some acts become defined as illegal while others are not?
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Class 2: Definitions and Perspectives 1. a. Behavior which is prohibited by criminal code 2. Summarize the main points of legalistic perspective on crime (three main points): a. To constitute a crime the behavior must be prohibited by law b. To constitute a crime, the behavior must be a voluntary act or omission c. Culpability for a crime depends on a defendant mental state 3. What is mens rea? a. The guilty mind 4. What is criminalization? a. The process by which law is selectively applied to social behavior 5. What is Seliln’s view on crime? a. Violation of conduct norms 6. What does he purport that criminological research should study? a. Conduct norms 7. What does the approach to defining crime as “Crime as a Social Harm” mean? a. Being processed as a civil crime not a criminal offense 8. What does the approach to defining crime as a “violation of human rights” mean?
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a. View that all people have certain natural and inalienable rights, crime violates those rights 9. What does the approach to defining crime as a “form of deviance” mean? a. Deviance: any social behavior or social characteristics that departs from the conventional norms and standards of a community or society from which deviance is sanctioned 10. What are the main points of Hagan’s Pyramid approach to defining crime and deviance? a.
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This note was uploaded on 03/30/2008 for the course SOCI 304 taught by Professor Foster during the Spring '08 term at Texas A&M.

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Exam I Review - Class 1: Definitions and Perspectives 1....

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