ASHRAE-HANDBOOK-FUNDAMENTALS 2009.pdf - 2009 ASHRAE\u00ae HANDBOOK FUNDAMENTALS Inch-Pound Edition American Society of Heating Refrigerating and

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Unformatted text preview: 2009 ASHRAE® HANDBOOK FUNDAMENTALS Inch-Pound Edition American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. 1791 Tullie Circle, N.E., Atlanta, GA 30329 (404) 636-8400 ©2009 by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. All rights reserved. DEDICATED TO THE ADVANCEMENT OF THE PROFESSION AND ITS ALLIED INDUSTRIES No part of this publication may be reproduced without permission in writing from ASHRAE, except by a reviewer who may quote brief passages or reproduce illustrations in a review with appropriate credit; nor may any part of this book be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any way or by any means—electronic, photocopying, recording, or other—without permission in writing from ASHRAE. Requests for permission should be submitted at . Volunteer members of ASHRAE Technical Committees and others compiled the information in this handbook, and it is generally reviewed and updated every four years. Comments, criticisms, and suggestions regarding the subject matter are invited. Any errors or omissions in the data should be brought to the attention of the Editor. Additions and corrections to Handbook volumes in print will be published in the Handbook published the year following their verification and, as soon as verified, on the ASHRAE Internet Web site. DISCLAIMER ASHRAE has compiled this publication with care, but ASHRAE has not investigated, and ASHRAE expressly disclaims any duty to investigate, any product, service, process, procedure, design, or the like that may be described herein. The appearance of any technical data or editorial material in this publication does not constitute endorsement, warranty, or guaranty by ASHRAE of any product, service, process, procedure, design, or the like. ASHRAE does not warrant that the information in this publication is free of errors. The entire risk of the use of any information in this publication is assumed by the user. ISBN 978-1-933742-54-0 ISSN 1523-7222 The paper for this book is both acid- and elemental-chlorine-free and was manufactured with pulp obtained from sources using sustainable forestry practices. The printing used soy-based inks. ASHRAE Research: Improving the Quality of Life The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and AirConditioning Engineers is the world’s foremost technical society in the fields of heating, ventilation, air conditioning, and refrigeration. Its members worldwide are individuals who share ideas, identify needs, support research, and write the industry’s standards for testing and practice. The result is that engineers are better able to keep indoor environments safe and productive while protecting and preserving the outdoors for generations to come. One of the ways that ASHRAE supports its members’ and industry’s need for information is through ASHRAE Research. Thousands of individuals and companies support ASHRAE Research annually, enabling ASHRAE to report new data about material properties and building physics and to promote the application of innovative technologies. Chapters in the ASHRAE Handbook are updated through the experience of members of ASHRAE Technical Committees and through results of ASHRAE Research reported at ASHRAE meetings and published in ASHRAE special publications and in ASHRAE Transactions. For information about ASHRAE Research or to become a member, contact ASHRAE, 1791 Tullie Circle, Atlanta, GA 30329; telephone: 404-636-8400; . Preface The 2009 ASHRAE Handbook—Fundamentals covers basic principles and data used in the HVAC&R industry. The ASHRAE Technical Committees that prepare these chapters strive not only to provide new information, but also to clarify existing information, delete obsolete materials, and reorganize chapters to make the Handbook more understandable and easier to use. An accompanying CDROM contains all the volume’s chapters in both I-P and SI units. This edition includes a new chapter (35), Sustainability, which defines this concept for HVAC&R and describes the principles, design considerations, and detailed evaluations needed in designing sustainable HVAC&R systems. Also new for this volume, chapter order and groupings have been revised for more logical flow and use. Some of the other revisions and additions to the volume are as follows: • Chapter 1, Psychrometrics, has new information on the composition of dry air, and revised table data for thermodynamic properties of water and moist air. • Chapter 6, Mass Transfer, has added examples on evaluating diffusion coefficients, and on heat transfer and moisture removal rates. • Chapter 7, Fundamentals of Control, includes new content on dampers, adaptive control, direct digital control (DDC) system architecture and specifications, and wireless control. • Chapter 9, Thermal Comfort, has a new section on thermal comfort and task performance, based on multiple new studies done in laboratory and office environments. • Chapter 10, Indoor Environmental Health, was reorganized to describe hazard sources, health effects, exposure standards, and exposure controls. New and updated topics include mold, Legionella, indoor air chemistry, thermal impacts, and water quality standards. • Chapter 14, Climatic Design Information, has new climate data for 5564 stations (an increase of 1142 new stations compared to 2005 Fundamentals) on the CD-ROM accompanying this book. A subset of data for selected stations is also included in the printed chapter for convenient access. • Chapter 15, Fenestration, has been revised to include new examples of solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) calculations, and new research results on shading calculations and U-factors for various specialized door types. • Chapter 16, Ventilation and Infiltration, has new, detailed examples, updates from ASHRAE Standards 62.1 and 62.2, discussion of relevant LEED® aspects, and new information on airtightness and ventilation rates for commercial buildings. • Chapter 18, Nonresidential Cooling and Heating Load Calculations, has been updated to reflect new ASHRAE research results on climate data and on heat gains from office equipment, lighting, and commercial cooking appliances. • Chapter 20, Space Air Diffusion, has been completely rewritten to harmonize with related chapters in other volumes, with major sections on fully mixed, partially mixed, stratified, and task/ambient systems and the principles behind their design and operation. • Chapter 21, Duct Design, has new data for round and rectangular fittings in agreement with the ASHRAE Duct Fitting Database, as well as new content on duct leakage requirements, spiral duct roughness, and flexible duct pressure loss correction. • Chapter 23, Insulation for Mechanical Systems, has added tables from ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2007, and a new section on writing specifications. • Chapter 24, Airflow Around Buildings, has added a detailed discussion on computational evaluation of airflow, plus new references including updated versions of design standards and manuals of practice. • Chapters 25, 26, and 27 carry new titles, reorganized as chapters on Heat, Air, and Moisture Control Fundamentals, Material Properties, and Examples, respectively, with updated content throughout. • Chapter 29, Refrigerants, has new content on stratospheric ozone depletion, global climate change, and global environmental characteristics of refrigerants. • Chapter 30, Thermophysical Properties of Refrigerants, has updated data for R-125, R-245fa, R-170, R-290, R-600, and R-600a. • Chapter 36, Measurement and Instruments, has revised content on measurement of air velocity, infiltration, airtightness, and outdoor air ventilation, plus new information on particle image velocimetry (PIV) and data acquisition and recording. This volume is published, both as a bound print volume and in electronic format on a CD-ROM, in two editions: one using inchpound (I-P) units of measurement, the other using the International System of Units (SI). Corrections to the 2006, 2007, and 2008 Handbook volumes can be found on the ASHRAE Web site at and in the Additions and Corrections section of this volume. Corrections for this volume will be listed in subsequent volumes and on the ASHRAE Web site. Reader comments are enthusiastically invited. To suggest improvements for a chapter, please comment using the form on the ASHRAE Web site or, using the cutout page(s) at the end of this volume’s index, write to Handbook Editor, ASHRAE, 1791 Tullie Circle, Atlanta, GA 30329, or fax 678-539-2187, or e-mail [email protected] ashrae.org. Mark S. Owen Editor The four-volume ASHRAE Handbook is a reference for engineers working in HVAC&R and for professionals in allied fields. The print edition is revised on a four-year cycle, with one volume published each year. Tables of contents for the four most recent volumes appear on these pages, and a composite index is at the end of this volume. In addition to the CD-ROM accompanying this book, ASHRAE publishes a HandbookCD+ containing all four volumes plus supplemental material and features. The Society also produces educational materials, standards, design guides, databases, and many other useful publications. See the online bookstore of the ASHRAE Web site ( ) for information on these publications. 2009 FUNDAMENTALS PRINCIPLES Chapter 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Psychrometrics Thermodynamics and Refrigeration Cycles Fluid Flow Heat Transfer Two-Phase Flow Mass Transfer Fundamentals of Control Sound and Vibration INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Chapter 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Thermal Comfort Indoor Environmental Health Air Contaminants Odors Indoor Environmental Modeling LOAD AND ENERGY CALCULATIONS Chapter 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. Climatic Design Information Fenestration Ventilation and Infiltration Residential Cooling and Heating Load Calculations Nonresidential Cooling and Heating Load Calculations Energy Estimating and Modeling Methods HVAC DESIGN Chapter 20. Space Air Diffusion 21. 22. 23. 24. Duct Design Pipe Sizing Insulation for Mechanical Systems Airflow Around Buildings BUILDING ENVELOPE Chapter 25. 26. 27. Heat, Air, and Moisture Control in Building Assemblies—Fundamentals Heat, Air, and Moisture Control in Building Assemblies—Material Properties Heat, Air, and Moisture Control in Building Assemblies—Examples MATERIALS Chapter 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. Combustion and Fuels Refrigerants Thermophysical Properties of Refrigerants Physical Properties of Secondary Coolants (Brines) Sorbents and Desiccants Physical Properties of Materials GENERAL Chapter 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. Energy Resources Sustainability Measurement and Instruments Abbreviations and Symbols Units and Conversions Codes and Standards 2008 HVAC SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT AIR-CONDITIONING AND HEATING SYSTEMS HEATING EQUIPMENT AND COMPONENTS Chapter Chapter 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. HVAC System Analysis and Selection Decentralized Cooling and Heating Central Heating and Cooling Air Handling and Distribution In-Room Terminal Systems Panel Heating and Cooling Combined Heat and Power Systems Applied Heat Pump and Heat Recovery Systems Small Forced-Air Heating and Cooling Systems Steam Systems District Heating and Cooling Hydronic Heating and Cooling Condenser Water Systems Medium- and High-Temperature Water Heating Infrared Radiant Heating Ultraviolet Lamp Systems Combustion Turbine Inlet Cooling AIR-HANDLING EQUIPMENT AND COMPONENTS Chapter 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. Duct Construction Room Air Distribution Equipment Fans Humidifiers Air-Cooling and Dehumidifying Coils Desiccant Dehumidification and Pressure-Drying Equipment Mechanical Dehumidifiers and Related Components Air-to-Air Energy Recovery Equipment Air-Heating Coils Unit Ventilators, Unit Heaters, and Makeup Air Units Air Cleaners for Particulate Contaminants Industrial Gas Cleaning and Air Pollution Control Equipment Automatic Fuel-Burning Systems Boilers Furnaces Residential In-Space Heating Equipment Chimney, Vent, and Fireplace Systems Hydronic Heat-Distributing Units and Radiators Solar Energy Equipment COOLING EQUIPMENT AND COMPONENTS Chapter 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. Compressors Condensers Cooling Towers Evaporative Air-Cooling Equipment Liquid Coolers Liquid-Chilling Systems GENERAL COMPONENTS Chapter 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. Centrifugal Pumps Motors, Motor Controls, and Variable-Speed Drives Pipes, Tubes, and Fittings Valves Heat Exchangers PACKAGED, UNITARY, AND SPLIT-SYSTEM EQUIPMENT Chapter 48. 49. Unitary Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps Room Air Conditioners and Packaged Terminal Air Conditioners GENERAL Chapter 50. 51. Thermal Storage Codes and Standards CD-ROM with all content from 2009 Fundamentals inside back cover 2007 HVAC APPLICATIONS COMFORT APPLICATIONS ENERGY-RELATED APPLICATIONS Chapter Chapter 32. 33. 34. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Residences Retail Facilities Commercial and Public Buildings Places of Assembly Hotels, Motels, and Dormitories Educational Facilities Health Care Facilities Justice Facilities Automobiles and Mass Transit Aircraft Ships INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS Chapter 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. Industrial Air Conditioning Enclosed Vehicular Facilities Laboratories Engine Test Facilities Clean Spaces Data Processing and Electronic Office Areas Printing Plants Textile Processing Plants Photographic Material Facilities Museums, Galleries, Archives, and Libraries Environmental Control for Animals and Plants Drying and Storing Selected Farm Crops Air Conditioning of Wood and Paper Product Facilities Power Plants Nuclear Facilities Mine Air Conditioning and Ventilation Industrial Drying Systems Ventilation of the Industrial Environment Industrial Local Exhaust Systems Kitchen Ventilation Geothermal Energy Solar Energy Use Thermal Storage BUILDING OPERATIONS AND MANAGEMENT Chapter 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. Energy Use and Management Owning and Operating Costs Testing, Adjusting, and Balancing Operation and Maintenance Management Computer Applications Building Energy Monitoring Supervisory Control Strategies and Optimization HVAC Commissioning GENERAL APPLICATIONS Chapter 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. Building Envelopes Building Air Intake and Exhaust Design Control of Gaseous Indoor Air Contaminants Design and Application of Controls Sound and Vibration Control Water Treatment Service Water Heating Snow Melting and Freeze Protection Evaporative Cooling Fire and Smoke Management Radiant Heating and Cooling Seismic and Wind Restraint Design Electrical Considerations Room Air Distribution Integrated Building Design Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Explosive Incidents Codes and Standards 2006 REFRIGERATION REFRIGERATION SYSTEM PRACTICES Chapter 1. 2 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Liquid Overfeed Systems System Practices for Halocarbon Refrigerants System Practices for Ammonia and Carbon Dioxide Refrigerants Secondary Coolants in Refrigeration Systems Refrigerant System Chemistry Control of Moisture and Other Contaminants in Refrigerant Systems Lubricants in Refrigerant Systems Refrigerant Containment, Recovery, Recycling, and Reclamation FOOD STORAGE AND EQUIPMENT Chapter 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Thermal Properties of Foods Cooling and Freezing Times of Foods Commodity Storage Requirements Food Microbiology and Refrigeration Refrigeration Load Refrigerated-Facility Design Methods of Precooling Fruits, Vegetables, and Cut Flowers FOOD REFRIGERATION Chapter 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. Industrial Food-Freezing Systems Meat Products Poultry Products Fishery Products Dairy Products Eggs and Egg Products Deciduous Tree and Vine Fruit Citrus Fruit, Bananas, and Subtropical Fruit Vegetables Fruit Juice Concentrates and Chilled-Juice Products Beverages Processed, Precooked, and Prepared Foods Bakery Products 29. Chocolates, Candies, Nuts, Dried Fruits, and Dried Vegetables DISTRIBUTION OF CHILLED AND FROZEN FOOD Chapter 30. 31. 32. Cargo Containers, Rail Cars, Trailers, and Trucks Marine Refrigeration Air Transport INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS Chapter 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. Insulation Systems for Refrigerant Piping Ice Manufacture Ice Rinks Concrete Dams and Subsurface Soils Refrigeration in the Chemical Industry LOW-TEMPERATURE APPLICATIONS Chapter 38. 39. 40. Cryogenics Ultralow-Temperature Refrigeration Biomedical Applications of Cryogenic Refrigeration REFRIGERATION EQUIPMENT Chapter 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. Absorption Cooling, Heating, and Refrigeration Equipment Forced-Circulation Air Coolers Component Balancing in Refrigeration Systems Refrigerant-Control Devices Factory Dehydrating, Charging, and Testing UNITARY REFRIGERATION EQUIPMENT Chapter 46. 47. 48. Retail Food Store Refrigeration and Equipment Food Service and General Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Household Refrigerators and Freezers GENERAL 49. Codes and Standards LICENSE AGREEMENT 2009 ASHRAE Handbook—Fundamentals CD-ROM The 2009 ASHRAE Handbook—Fundamentals is distributed with an accompanying CDROM, which provides electronic access to the volume’s content. The License for this CD-ROM is for personal use only; this CD-ROM may not be used on a LAN or WAN. Using the CD-ROM indicates your acceptance of the terms and conditions of this agreement. If you do not agree with them, you should not use this CD-ROM. The title and all copyrights and ownership rights in the program and data are retained by ASHRAE. You assume responsibility for the selection of the program and data to achieve your intended results and for the installation, use, and results obtained from the program and data. You may use the program and data on a single machine. You may copy the program and data into any machine-readable form for back-up purposes in support of your use of the program or data on a single machine. You may not copy or transfer the program or data except as expressly provided for in this license. To do so will result in the automatic termination of your license, and ASHRAE will consider options available to it to recover damages from unauthorized use of its intellectual property. Specifically, you may not copy nor transfer the program or data onto a machine other than your own unless the person to whom you are copying or transferring the program or data also has a license to use them. Distribution to third parties of ASHRAE intellectual property in print or electronic form from this CD-ROM is also prohibited except when authorized by ASHRAE. If you wish to reprint data from this CD-ROM in print or electronic form (such as posting content on a Web site), visit and go to Handbook Reprint Permissions. CONTENTS Contributors vii ASHRAE Technical Committees, Task Groups, and Technical Resource Groups ix ASHRAE Research: Improving the Quality of Life x Preface x PRINCIPLES Chapter 1. Psychrometrics (TC 1.1, Thermodynamics and Psychrometrics, TC 8.3, Absorption and HeatOperated Machines) 2. Thermodynamics and Refrigeration Cycles (TC 1.1) 3. Fluid Flow (TC 1.3, Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow) 4. Heat Transfer (TC 1.3) 5. Two-Phase Flow (TC 1.3) 6. Mass Transfer (TC 1.3) 7. Fundamentals of Control (TC 1.4, Control Theory and Application) 8. Sound and Vibration (TC 2.6, Sound and Vibration Control) 1.1 2.1 3.1 4.1 5.1 6.1 7.1 8.1 INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Chapter 9. Thermal Comfort (TC 2.1, Physiology and Human Environment) 10. Indoor Environmental Health (Environmental Health Committee) 11. Air Contaminants (TC 2.3, Gaseous Air Contaminants and Gas Contaminant Removal Equipment) 12. Odors (TC 2 .3) 13. Indoor Environmental Modeling (TC 4.10, Indoor Environmental Modeling) 9.1 10.1 11.1 12.1 13.1 LOAD AND ENERGY CALCULATIONS Chapter Climatic Design Information (TC 4.2, Climatic Information) Fenestration (TC 4.5, Fenestration) Ventilation and Infiltration (TC 4.3, Ventilation Requirements and Infiltration ) Residential Cooling and Heatin...
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