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Unformatted text preview: 2009 ASHRAE® HANDBOOK FUNDAMENTALS Inch-Pound Edition American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc.
1791 Tullie Circle, N.E., Atlanta, GA 30329
(404) 636-8400 ©2009 by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers,
Inc. All rights reserved.
DEDICATED TO THE ADVANCEMENT OF
THE PROFESSION AND ITS ALLIED INDUSTRIES No part of this publication may be reproduced without permission in writing from
ASHRAE, except by a reviewer who may quote brief passages or reproduce illustrations in
a review with appropriate credit; nor may any part of this book be reproduced, stored in a
retrieval system, or transmitted in any way or by any means—electronic, photocopying,
recording, or other—without permission in writing from ASHRAE. Requests for permission should be submitted at .
Volunteer members of ASHRAE Technical Committees and others compiled the information in this handbook, and it is generally reviewed and updated every four years. Comments, criticisms, and suggestions regarding the subject matter are invited. Any errors or
omissions in the data should be brought to the attention of the Editor. Additions and corrections to Handbook volumes in print will be published in the Handbook published the year
following their verification and, as soon as verified, on the ASHRAE Internet Web site.
ASHRAE has compiled this publication with care, but ASHRAE has not investigated,
and ASHRAE expressly disclaims any duty to investigate, any product, service, process,
procedure, design, or the like that may be described herein. The appearance of any technical
data or editorial material in this publication does not constitute endorsement, warranty, or
guaranty by ASHRAE of any product, service, process, procedure, design, or the like.
ASHRAE does not warrant that the information in this publication is free of errors. The
entire risk of the use of any information in this publication is assumed by the user.
ISSN 1523-7222 The paper for this book is both acid- and elemental-chlorine-free and was
manufactured with pulp obtained from sources using sustainable forestry
practices. The printing used soy-based inks. ASHRAE Research: Improving the Quality of Life
The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and AirConditioning Engineers is the world’s foremost technical society in
the fields of heating, ventilation, air conditioning, and refrigeration.
Its members worldwide are individuals who share ideas, identify
needs, support research, and write the industry’s standards for testing and practice. The result is that engineers are better able to keep
indoor environments safe and productive while protecting and preserving the outdoors for generations to come.
One of the ways that ASHRAE supports its members’ and industry’s need for information is through ASHRAE Research. Thousands of individuals and companies support ASHRAE Research annually, enabling ASHRAE to report new data about material
properties and building physics and to promote the application of
Chapters in the ASHRAE Handbook are updated through the
experience of members of ASHRAE Technical Committees and
through results of ASHRAE Research reported at ASHRAE meetings and published in ASHRAE special publications and in
For information about ASHRAE Research or to become a member, contact ASHRAE, 1791 Tullie Circle, Atlanta, GA 30329; telephone: 404-636-8400; . Preface
The 2009 ASHRAE Handbook—Fundamentals covers basic principles and data used in the HVAC&R industry. The ASHRAE Technical Committees that prepare these chapters strive not only to
provide new information, but also to clarify existing information,
delete obsolete materials, and reorganize chapters to make the Handbook more understandable and easier to use. An accompanying CDROM contains all the volume’s chapters in both I-P and SI units.
This edition includes a new chapter (35), Sustainability, which
defines this concept for HVAC&R and describes the principles,
design considerations, and detailed evaluations needed in designing
sustainable HVAC&R systems.
Also new for this volume, chapter order and groupings have been
revised for more logical flow and use. Some of the other revisions
and additions to the volume are as follows:
• Chapter 1, Psychrometrics, has new information on the composition of dry air, and revised table data for thermodynamic properties of water and moist air.
• Chapter 6, Mass Transfer, has added examples on evaluating diffusion coefficients, and on heat transfer and moisture removal rates.
• Chapter 7, Fundamentals of Control, includes new content on
dampers, adaptive control, direct digital control (DDC) system
architecture and specifications, and wireless control.
• Chapter 9, Thermal Comfort, has a new section on thermal comfort and task performance, based on multiple new studies done in
laboratory and office environments.
• Chapter 10, Indoor Environmental Health, was reorganized to
describe hazard sources, health effects, exposure standards, and
exposure controls. New and updated topics include mold, Legionella, indoor air chemistry, thermal impacts, and water quality
• Chapter 14, Climatic Design Information, has new climate data
for 5564 stations (an increase of 1142 new stations compared to
2005 Fundamentals) on the CD-ROM accompanying this book.
A subset of data for selected stations is also included in the
printed chapter for convenient access.
• Chapter 15, Fenestration, has been revised to include new examples of solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) calculations, and new
research results on shading calculations and U-factors for various
specialized door types.
• Chapter 16, Ventilation and Infiltration, has new, detailed examples, updates from ASHRAE Standards 62.1 and 62.2, discussion
of relevant LEED® aspects, and new information on airtightness
and ventilation rates for commercial buildings.
• Chapter 18, Nonresidential Cooling and Heating Load Calculations, has been updated to reflect new ASHRAE research results
on climate data and on heat gains from office equipment, lighting,
and commercial cooking appliances. • Chapter 20, Space Air Diffusion, has been completely rewritten to
harmonize with related chapters in other volumes, with major sections on fully mixed, partially mixed, stratified, and task/ambient
systems and the principles behind their design and operation.
• Chapter 21, Duct Design, has new data for round and rectangular
fittings in agreement with the ASHRAE Duct Fitting Database, as
well as new content on duct leakage requirements, spiral duct
roughness, and flexible duct pressure loss correction.
• Chapter 23, Insulation for Mechanical Systems, has added tables
from ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2007, and a new section on writing
• Chapter 24, Airflow Around Buildings, has added a detailed discussion on computational evaluation of airflow, plus new references including updated versions of design standards and
manuals of practice.
• Chapters 25, 26, and 27 carry new titles, reorganized as chapters
on Heat, Air, and Moisture Control Fundamentals, Material Properties, and Examples, respectively, with updated content throughout.
• Chapter 29, Refrigerants, has new content on stratospheric ozone
depletion, global climate change, and global environmental characteristics of refrigerants.
• Chapter 30, Thermophysical Properties of Refrigerants, has updated data for R-125, R-245fa, R-170, R-290, R-600, and R-600a.
• Chapter 36, Measurement and Instruments, has revised content on
measurement of air velocity, infiltration, airtightness, and outdoor
air ventilation, plus new information on particle image velocimetry (PIV) and data acquisition and recording.
This volume is published, both as a bound print volume and in
electronic format on a CD-ROM, in two editions: one using inchpound (I-P) units of measurement, the other using the International
System of Units (SI).
Corrections to the 2006, 2007, and 2008 Handbook volumes can
be found on the ASHRAE Web site at and in
the Additions and Corrections section of this volume. Corrections
for this volume will be listed in subsequent volumes and on the
ASHRAE Web site.
Reader comments are enthusiastically invited. To suggest improvements for a chapter, please comment using the form on the
ASHRAE Web site or, using the cutout page(s) at the end of this volume’s index, write to Handbook Editor, ASHRAE, 1791 Tullie Circle, Atlanta, GA 30329, or fax 678-539-2187, or e-mail [email protected]
Mark S. Owen
Editor The four-volume ASHRAE Handbook is a reference for engineers working in HVAC&R and for professionals in allied fields. The print edition is
revised on a four-year cycle, with one volume published each year. Tables of contents for the four most recent volumes appear on these pages, and a
composite index is at the end of this volume. In addition to the CD-ROM accompanying this book, ASHRAE publishes a HandbookCD+ containing
all four volumes plus supplemental material and features. The Society also produces educational materials, standards, design guides, databases, and
many other useful publications. See the online bookstore of the ASHRAE Web site ( ) for information on these publications. 2009 FUNDAMENTALS
Thermodynamics and Refrigeration Cycles
Fundamentals of Control
Sound and Vibration INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY
13. Thermal Comfort
Indoor Environmental Health
Indoor Environmental Modeling LOAD AND ENERGY CALCULATIONS
19. Climatic Design Information
Ventilation and Infiltration
Residential Cooling and Heating Load Calculations
Nonresidential Cooling and Heating Load
Energy Estimating and Modeling Methods HVAC DESIGN
Chapter 20. Space Air Diffusion 21.
24. Duct Design
Insulation for Mechanical Systems
Airflow Around Buildings BUILDING ENVELOPE
27. Heat, Air, and Moisture Control in Building
Heat, Air, and Moisture Control in Building
Heat, Air, and Moisture Control in Building
33. Combustion and Fuels
Thermophysical Properties of Refrigerants
Physical Properties of Secondary Coolants (Brines)
Sorbents and Desiccants
Physical Properties of Materials GENERAL
39. Energy Resources
Measurement and Instruments
Abbreviations and Symbols
Units and Conversions
Codes and Standards 2008 HVAC SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT
AIR-CONDITIONING AND HEATING SYSTEMS HEATING EQUIPMENT AND COMPONENTS Chapter Chapter 30.
17. HVAC System Analysis and Selection
Decentralized Cooling and Heating
Central Heating and Cooling
Air Handling and Distribution
In-Room Terminal Systems
Panel Heating and Cooling
Combined Heat and Power Systems
Applied Heat Pump and Heat Recovery Systems
Small Forced-Air Heating and Cooling Systems
District Heating and Cooling
Hydronic Heating and Cooling
Condenser Water Systems
Medium- and High-Temperature Water Heating
Infrared Radiant Heating
Ultraviolet Lamp Systems
Combustion Turbine Inlet Cooling AIR-HANDLING EQUIPMENT AND COMPONENTS
29. Duct Construction
Room Air Distribution Equipment
Air-Cooling and Dehumidifying Coils
Desiccant Dehumidification and Pressure-Drying
Mechanical Dehumidifiers and Related Components
Air-to-Air Energy Recovery Equipment
Unit Ventilators, Unit Heaters, and Makeup Air
Air Cleaners for Particulate Contaminants
Industrial Gas Cleaning and Air Pollution Control
Equipment Automatic Fuel-Burning Systems
Residential In-Space Heating Equipment
Chimney, Vent, and Fireplace Systems
Hydronic Heat-Distributing Units and Radiators
Solar Energy Equipment COOLING EQUIPMENT AND COMPONENTS
Evaporative Air-Cooling Equipment
Liquid-Chilling Systems GENERAL COMPONENTS
47. Centrifugal Pumps
Motors, Motor Controls, and Variable-Speed Drives
Pipes, Tubes, and Fittings
Heat Exchangers PACKAGED, UNITARY, AND SPLIT-SYSTEM
49. Unitary Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps
Room Air Conditioners and Packaged Terminal Air
51. Thermal Storage
Codes and Standards CD-ROM with all content from 2009 Fundamentals inside back cover 2007 HVAC APPLICATIONS
COMFORT APPLICATIONS ENERGY-RELATED APPLICATIONS Chapter Chapter 32.
Commercial and Public Buildings
Places of Assembly
Hotels, Motels, and Dormitories
Health Care Facilities
Automobiles and Mass Transit
Ships INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS
31. Industrial Air Conditioning
Enclosed Vehicular Facilities
Engine Test Facilities
Data Processing and Electronic Office Areas
Textile Processing Plants
Photographic Material Facilities
Museums, Galleries, Archives, and Libraries
Environmental Control for Animals and Plants
Drying and Storing Selected Farm Crops
Air Conditioning of Wood and Paper Product
Mine Air Conditioning and Ventilation
Industrial Drying Systems
Ventilation of the Industrial Environment
Industrial Local Exhaust Systems
Kitchen Ventilation Geothermal Energy
Solar Energy Use
Thermal Storage BUILDING OPERATIONS AND MANAGEMENT
42. Energy Use and Management
Owning and Operating Costs
Testing, Adjusting, and Balancing
Operation and Maintenance Management
Building Energy Monitoring
Supervisory Control Strategies and Optimization
HVAC Commissioning GENERAL APPLICATIONS
59. Building Envelopes
Building Air Intake and Exhaust Design
Control of Gaseous Indoor Air Contaminants
Design and Application of Controls
Sound and Vibration Control
Service Water Heating
Snow Melting and Freeze Protection
Fire and Smoke Management
Radiant Heating and Cooling
Seismic and Wind Restraint Design
Room Air Distribution
Integrated Building Design
Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Explosive
Codes and Standards 2006 REFRIGERATION
REFRIGERATION SYSTEM PRACTICES
8. Liquid Overfeed Systems
System Practices for Halocarbon Refrigerants
System Practices for Ammonia and Carbon Dioxide
Secondary Coolants in Refrigeration Systems
Refrigerant System Chemistry
Control of Moisture and Other Contaminants in
Lubricants in Refrigerant Systems
Refrigerant Containment, Recovery, Recycling, and
Reclamation FOOD STORAGE AND EQUIPMENT
15. Thermal Properties of Foods
Cooling and Freezing Times of Foods
Commodity Storage Requirements
Food Microbiology and Refrigeration
Methods of Precooling Fruits, Vegetables, and
Cut Flowers FOOD REFRIGERATION
28. Industrial Food-Freezing Systems
Eggs and Egg Products
Deciduous Tree and Vine Fruit
Citrus Fruit, Bananas, and Subtropical Fruit
Fruit Juice Concentrates and Chilled-Juice Products
Processed, Precooked, and Prepared Foods
Bakery Products 29. Chocolates, Candies, Nuts, Dried Fruits, and Dried
Vegetables DISTRIBUTION OF CHILLED AND FROZEN FOOD
32. Cargo Containers, Rail Cars, Trailers, and Trucks
Air Transport INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS
37. Insulation Systems for Refrigerant Piping
Concrete Dams and Subsurface Soils
Refrigeration in the Chemical Industry LOW-TEMPERATURE APPLICATIONS
Biomedical Applications of Cryogenic Refrigeration REFRIGERATION EQUIPMENT
45. Absorption Cooling, Heating, and Refrigeration
Forced-Circulation Air Coolers
Component Balancing in Refrigeration Systems
Factory Dehydrating, Charging, and Testing UNITARY REFRIGERATION EQUIPMENT
48. Retail Food Store Refrigeration and Equipment
Food Service and General Commercial
Household Refrigerators and Freezers GENERAL
49. Codes and Standards LICENSE AGREEMENT
2009 ASHRAE Handbook—Fundamentals CD-ROM
The 2009 ASHRAE Handbook—Fundamentals is distributed with an accompanying CDROM, which provides electronic access to the volume’s content.
The License for this CD-ROM is for personal use only; this CD-ROM may not be used on a
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Using the CD-ROM indicates your acceptance of the terms and conditions of this agreement. If you do not agree with them, you should not use this CD-ROM.
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ASHRAE. You assume responsibility for the selection of the program and data to achieve your
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You may use the program and data on a single machine. You may copy the program and
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Specifically, you may not copy nor transfer the program or data onto a machine other than
your own unless the person to whom you are copying or transferring the program or data also has
a license to use them.
Distribution to third parties of ASHRAE intellectual property in print or electronic form
from this CD-ROM is also prohibited except when authorized by ASHRAE.
If you wish to reprint data from this CD-ROM in print or electronic form (such as posting
content on a Web site), visit and go to Handbook Reprint Permissions. CONTENTS
Contributors vii ASHRAE Technical Committees, Task Groups, and Technical Resource Groups ix ASHRAE Research: Improving the Quality of Life x Preface x PRINCIPLES
Chapter 1. Psychrometrics (TC 1.1, Thermodynamics and Psychrometrics, TC 8.3, Absorption and HeatOperated Machines)
2. Thermodynamics and Refrigeration Cycles (TC 1.1)
3. Fluid Flow (TC 1.3, Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow)
4. Heat Transfer (TC 1.3)
5. Two-Phase Flow (TC 1.3)
6. Mass Transfer (TC 1.3)
7. Fundamentals of Control (TC 1.4, Control Theory and Application)
8. Sound and Vibration (TC 2.6, Sound and Vibration Control) 1.1
8.1 INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY
Chapter 9. Thermal Comfort (TC 2.1, Physiology and Human Environment)
10. Indoor Environmental Health (Environmental Health Committee)
11. Air Contaminants (TC 2.3, Gaseous Air Contaminants and Gas Contaminant Removal
12. Odors (TC 2 .3)
13. Indoor Environmental Modeling (TC 4.10, Indoor Environmental Modeling) 9.1
13.1 LOAD AND ENERGY CALCULATIONS
Chapter Climatic Design Information (TC 4.2, Climatic Information)
Fenestration (TC 4.5, Fenestration)
Ventilation and Infiltration (TC 4.3, Ventilation Requirements and Infiltration )
Residential Cooling and Heatin...
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