CPHL 214 NOTES.docx - CPHL 214 Critical Thinking 1 Module 1...

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Chapter 2 / Exercise 5
College Algebra
Gustafson/Hughes
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CPHL 214: Critical Thinking 1 Module 1: Introduction – What is an Argument? What an Argument is Not! (Chapter 1) Introduction A person with skills in critical thinking is able to: o Understand the connections, logical or otherwise, between ideas o Identify, construct and evaluate arguments o Recognize inconsisten ci es and common errors in reasoning o Systemically solve problems o Identify relevance and importance in arguments o Assess the justification of beliefs and values Identifying Arguments “indicator words” eg. Therefore o words like “therefore” tells us that the statements immediately preceding it are likely to be premises, and the words immediately following it are the conclusion that has been supported by the premise Premises indicators o Since o Because o For o As indicated by o Follows from o May be inferred from o May be derived from o On the grounds that o As shown by o Given that o May be deduced from o Eg: Universities need to have faculty who will do research, since research is necessary and there are few other institutions that support it. Conclusions are indicated by o Therefore, thus, so, hence, then o It follows that o It can be inferred that o In conclusion o Accordingly o For this reason o Proves that o Shows that o Eg: Fear can cause accident among older people. Therefore , doctors should be discretion when counseling other people about the risks of falling What is an Argument
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College Algebra
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Chapter 2 / Exercise 5
College Algebra
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It is a set of claims in which one or more of them (the premises) are put forward as to offer reasons for another claim (the conclusion). A person offers an argument when he or she tries to justify a claim by offering reasons for it Conclusion: in an argument, the claim for which premises are intended as support. It is this claim that the arguer tries to make credible An argument is “n” premise(s) AND one conclusion What isn’t an Argument? Conditional statement: one that is describes and links several conditions, specifying that if one condition holds, another will as well If Arctic ice melts, ocean levels around the world will be higher Explanation: An account showing or attempting to show, how it came to be that fact or an event is the way it is. Frequently, explanations are given by specifying the causes of an event. An explanation is one kind of non-argument Module 2: Standardizing and Diagramming Arguments (Chapter 2) Standardizing an argument means putting the premises and conclusion of an argument into logical order, with premises, often numbered, preceding the conclusion Why Standardize? Conclusions do not have to come at the end of a line of argument; they may come at the beginning, asking us to accept the conclusion on the basis of the claims or premises that are laid out To properly understand the argument; identify the premise and conclusion then rewrite the argument in a format that makes it clear to the reader o This is called standardizing because its structuring an argument in its logic order

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