MDSE 521: Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation
Dr. D. O. Ochieng, Ph.D.
An evaluation plan should ideally be done at the planning stage of a project, before
commencement of implementation. This will allow for planning ahead of time and data
collection activities that may need to be undertaken, such as pre-intervention surveys.
However, it is never too late to develop an M and E plan. Retro-fitting an M and E plan to an
existing project may just mean that the project may be constrained in some of the data that can
6.1 Develop plan
Step 1: Identify the evaluation audience
Identify who the evaluation audience or stakeholders are. The evaluation audience includes
the people or organizations that require an evaluation to be conducted. There may be multiple
audiences, each with their own requirements. Typically, this includes the funding agency, and
may also include partner organizations,
the project team, and the project’s participants
target group. Evaluation is generally undertaken for accountability, or learning, and preferably
both together. If funds are limited for evaluation, prioritize evaluation by identifying who are
the most important people to report to.
Step 2: Define the evaluation questions
Evaluation questions should be developed up-front, and in collaboration with the primary
audience(s) and other stakeholders whom to report to. Evaluation questions go beyond
measurements to ask the higher order questions such as whether the intervention is worth it, or