NU 6052 WK 9 GROUP PROJECT.docx - Key Concepts for Chapter...

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Key Concepts for Chapter 16; Descriptive Statistics Levels of Measurement -four levels used by scientist for classifying measures. They include nominal, ordinal, interval and ration. (pg. 356-357) Nominal Measurement - using an assigned number to classify characteristics into categories. Typically referred to as categorical , variables include blood type and gender. Normal measures must have exclusive categories that typically utilize codes to distinguish. (EX: Blood types- O+=1, O-=2, A+=3, A-=4, AB+=5, AB-=6) Ordinal Measurement - this measurement involves sorting people based on their relative ranking on a specific attribute. Usually ranked by ability to perform activities they are measuring with regard to functional ability and relative to those in other categories. (EX: 1-Able to complete, 2-able to complete but needs assistance, 3-difficulty completing without assistance, 4-complete unable to complete.) Interval Measurement - this measurement occurs when researchers can assume equivalent distance between an attribute. These scales expand analytic possibilities, interval-level data can be averaged meaningfully from interval measurement. (EX: 60 degrees Fahrenheit is 10 degrees F warmer than 50 degrees F. And 10 degrees F separated 50 degrees F from 40 degrees F) Ration Measurement - one of the highest levels of measurement, ratio measure provides information on intervals between objects AND the absolute magnitude of the attribute. Ration measure has an absolute zero. (EX: Someone who weighs 100 pounds is twice as heavy as someone who weighs 50 pounds.) Comparison of Levels - from the four levels listed above the highest measure is ratio measure at the top and nominal measure at the bottom. When you move from top to bottom, you typically loose information. Frequency Distributions- most often utilized to organize, interpret and measure numeric data. Arranging numbers from lowest to highest, numbers are typically depicted as N which equals the sample size of the number set. (pg. 358-360) Constructing Frequency Distributions -consisting of two separate parts, observed score values (Xs) and frequency of cases at each value (fs), numbers are placed from lowest to highest along with corresponding frequencies in another column. The sum of the numbers in the frequency column must equal N, (the sample size).
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