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chapter 24 fluid electrolyte pH balance sml-1.pptx - Fluid,...

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Fluid, Electrolyte, pH BalanceChapter 24
OverviewBody Fluids: Content, Location, MixingWater Balance and AbnormalitiespH Regulation and Abnormalities
Fluid BalanceINOUTIN = OUTNo problemsIN ≠ OUTProblems
Abnormalities of Water BalanceFluid DeficiencyHypovolemiaDehydrationFluid ExcessVolume ExcessHypotonic Hydration
Table 24.1 Forms of Fluid ImbalanceFormTotal Body WaterOsmolarityFluid DeficiencyTotal Body WaterOsmolarityVolume depletion(hypovolemia)ReducedIsotonic(normal)Dehydration(negative water balance)ReducedHypertonic(elevated)Fluid ExcessVolume excessElevatedIsotonic(normal)Hypotonic hydration(positive water balance, water intoxication)ElevatedHypotonic(reduced)Forms of Fluid Imbalance
Total Body WaterFluid content of the human body ranges from 45% to 75% of its totalweightFluid content varies according to age, gender, weight, and fat contentof the bodyFluid content is highest at birth (75%) and decreases with age.Fluid content is higher in men (55-60%) than women of equal weightdue to higher fat in women6
Functions of WaterAbsorb and distribute heatProtect + cushion:amnionic fluid, CSFLubricate:serosal cavities, jointsTransport medium:for all solutesHydrolysis reactionsSolvent:polar properties
Body Fluid CompartmentsExtracellular fluid(ECF)Consists mainly of plasma andinterstitial fluid(IF)Lymph, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and joint fluids are considered extracellularIntracellular fluid(ICF)Facilitates intracellular chemical reactions that maintain lifeBy volume, the intracellular fluid compartment is the largest body fluidcompartment8
Distribution of Total Body Water9Most fluid outside cellsIs the fluid between cells
Water moves between fluidcompartments in body
Water Balance in the BodyWater balance means:H2O intake=H2O outputWhat is the normal H2O intake?What are the sources of water intake?What are routes of water output?
Fluid BalanceWater IN = Water OutWater enters the body via the digestive tractWater leaves the body via four exits:As urine through the kidneyAs water in expired air through the lungsAs sweat through the skinAs feces from the intestine
Fluid BalanceMost water coming into body isFrom drinkingBiggest way to lose water is urineIn = out, no problemsIn > out, too much fluid (body gets rid ofExcess by urinating more)In < out,not enough fluid (dehydration; bodyWill hold onto water rather than lose it; urinateless)
HypovolemiaWater and sodium lost without replacementTotal body water declines but osmolarity stays sameCauses: hemorrhage, severe burns, chronic vomiting or diarrhea
DehydrationDehydration:Water Input <Water OutputHemorrhage, diarrhea, burns, vomiting, sweating, deprivation,Diabetes mellitus (hypertonic filtrate), diabetes insipidis (lowinsulin)Cell waterinterstitial spaceplasma to maintainBP(hypovolemic shockCan lead to hyperthermia during hard work or exercise:vital organscompete with skin vessels for reduced CO– organs win, temp increases

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Term
Spring
Professor
Flora
Tags
Physiology, Anatomy, pH, ICF, ECF, alkalosis

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