Final Exams.docx - List of items to study for the final...

This preview shows page 1 - 3 out of 8 pages.

List of items to study for the final exam; General concepts; 1. General Structure of prokaryotes and eukaryotes and their differences a. Eukaryortes i. Has a nucleus and membrane bound organelle ii. Everything else b. Prokaryotes i. No nucleus and free floating stuff in the cytoplasm ii. Bacteria and archnea 2. Difference between Gram-positive and Gram-negative Cell wall a. Gram + i. Thick layer of peptidoglycan ii. Stains purple (Crystal violet) b. Gram – i. Thin layer of peptidoglycan ii. Has a lipid layer for a cell wall iii. Stains pink (safranin) 3. General structure of viruses a. Single or double stranded RNA or DNA b. Surrounding by protein coat, capsid i. Capsid can form many shapes, icosahedral c. Has tail fibers to attach to a cell d. Tube like sheath to inject the DNA or RNA into the cell 4. Recombinant DNA technology and PCR a. Polymerase chain reaction, technology to amplify a few copies of DNA and generate thousands and millions of copies from a few samples b. Occurs in three stages, Denaturing, Annealing and Extending i. Taq Polymerase is an enzyme that is taken from the bacteria Thermus aquaticus (Thermophile) 5. Terminology of Microbial control (table 9.1) 6. Epidemiological terms (endemic, epidemic, pandemic) a. Endemic, In population where the infection is constantly maintained at a baseline level in a geographic area
Image of page 1

Subscribe to view the full document.

b. Epidemic, a widespread occurrence of an infectious disease in a community at a particular time. i.e flu epidemic c. Pandemic a widespread occurrence of an infectious disease in multiple parts of the world at a particular time 7. Calculations of dilution and concentrations a. Ex: you need to 10ml final volume and you are making a 1/5 of a 10ml solution: calculate the solute of 1/5 of 10ml = 2ml, then add 8ml of the solvent (10-2=8) Antibiotics (mechanism of action) 8. Cell wall antibiotics (penicillin, methicillin, Vancomycin) a. Beta-lactam drugs i. Interfere with the peptidoglycan layer of the cell wall ii. Peptidoglycan is composed of polysaccharides and alternating NAM and NAG molecules iii. After the cell wall weakens, the cell is susceptible to osmotic pressure 9. Macrolides (Erythromycin) a. Target protein synthesis in a prokaryote cell (translation) i. Binds to 50s subunit in order to preventing the movement of the ribosome from one codon to the next ii. Freezes translation and protein synthesis is halted 10. Quinolones (Ciprofloxacin) a. Fluoroquinolones i. Inhibit DNA replication 1. Affects the DNA gyrase, which is responsible for the coiling and uncoiling of the DNA strand 11. Antimetabolites (Sulfa drugs) a. Sulfonamides i. Affect DNA synthesis 1. Sulf drugs are structural analogs to PABA a. PABA is a crucial component in the formation of THF b. THF is a folic acid that used as a coenzyme for the creation of the
Image of page 2
Image of page 3

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern