Midterm exam.docx - Items to study for the Midterm exam 1...

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Items to study for the Midterm exam; 1. Structure of Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes (bacteria) and comparison a. Eukaryortes I. Has a nucleus and membrane bound organelle II. Everything else b. Prokaryotes I. No nucleus and free floating stuff in the cytoplasm II. Bacteria and archnea 2. Difference between Gram + and Gram – cell wall a. Gram + I. Thick layer of peptidoglycan II. Stains purple (Crystal violet) b. Gram – I. Thin layer of peptidoglycan II. Has a lipid layer for a cell wall III. Stains pink (safranin) 3. Site of electron transport chain in bacteria and eukaryotes a. Bacteria I. Cell membrane (no mitochondria) b. Eukaryotes I. Mitochondria 4. The concept of slime layer of bacteria and formation of biofilms a. Slime layer is a sticky substance that is excreted by microorganism and is a important part of a creation of a biofilm. (Plaque on teeth) b. Harbors many different types of microorganisms 5. Overview of Aerobic, Anaerobic respiration and fermentation. a. Aerobic I. Requires oxygen as a final electron acceptor in the ETC II. Has the krebs cycle III. Creates 38 ATP in prokaryotes and 36 ATP in eukaryotes b. Anaerobic I. Doesn’t need oxygen as final electron acceptor II. Only goes though glycolysis III. Creates 2 ATP by splitting pyruvate in lactic acid c. Fermentation I. Anaerobic in nature II. Creates 2 ATP in glycolysis III. Creates organic substances as consequence (mostly acids) d. Sidenote: I. NADH vs FADH, NADH creates more ATP because it enters the ETC before FADH
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6. Definition and examples of Catabolic, anabolic, exergonic, endergonic reactions a. Catabolic reactions I. Release energy by breaking down complex into simple compounds II. Ex: Cellular Respiration, Glucose to pyruvate b. Anabolic I. Consume energy to build complex molecules from simple parts II. Ex: Protein synthesis from amino acids c. Exergonic reactions I. Proceed with a release of free energy II. Ex: ATP and splitting of a phosphate group d. Endergonic reactions I. Absorbs free energy II. Ex: ATP synthesis 7. Structure of DNA and nucleotides and process of DNA replication a. DNA: Deoxyribose nucleic acid (nucleotide) I. Has a sugar phosphate backone (5 carbon sugar) II. Double stranded helix formed III.
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