Running head: DISORDERS OF THE VEINS AND ARTERIES 1 Disorders of the Veins and Arteries Walden University Henriette Ghapsi NURS 6501: Advanced Pathophysiology Week 4 Assignment Dr. Maurer December 24, 2018 Disorders of the Veins and Arteries While arteries are blood vessels responsible for carrying oxygen-rich blood away from the heart, veins carry blood low in oxygen back to the heart. This movement of blood flow sometimes meets resistance. Advance practice nurses should be able to differentiate between the diseases of the veins and the conditions of the arteries and to know that altered circulation and
2 DISORDERS OF THE VEINS AND ARTERIES the development of blood clot affects the venous system. The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the pathophysiology of the chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) as well as the deep vein thrombosis (DVT); describe the difference between venous and arterial thrombosis; show the impact of age on the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of both CVI and DVT; draw a mind map of CVI and DVT. Chronic venous insufficiency pathophysiology Blood travels through venous systems from peripheral tissues to the heart, and it takes place in the venous and lymphatic systems. The venous valves block the return of blood to the heart. Eighty percent of venous blood flows goes back to the heart across the deep vein system (Narbutt et al., 2018). Veins are thin-walled distensible vessels with valves that prevent the backflow and pooling of blood in the vessels (Heuther and McCance (2017). When a major vein sustains injuries, it can cause the development of blood clot and impair blood circulation in the veins. The wall of the venous flexibility declines with age, as well as other factors, causing valve incompetency, allowing the pooling or stasis in the blood circulation, and causing the development chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). Thus, CVI is the changes of the blood circulation in the lower extremities related to the permanent increase in venous pressure, due to the valve incompetency. The signs and symptoms of CVI are the following: Lower extremities pain, painful dilated veins (varicose veins), erythema, skin discoloration, or ulceration (Eberhardt & Raffetto, 2014; Wennburg, 2000).
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