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Unformatted text preview: Boundless World History – HST 101 Table of Contents 1: The Study of History and the Rise of Civilization ............................................................................................5 1.1: The Study of History ................................................................................................................................5 1.1.1: Splitting History ................................................................................................................................5 1.1.2: Dates and Calendars .......................................................................................................................10 1.1.3: The Imperfect Historical Record .....................................................................................................16 1.1.4: Historical Bias .................................................................................................................................21 1.2: Precursors to Civilization .......................................................................................................................29 1.2.1: The Evolution of Humans ...............................................................................................................29 1.2.2: The Neolithic Revolution ................................................................................................................32 2: Ancient Mesopotamian Civilizations ............................................................................................................39 2.1: The First Urban Civilizations ..................................................................................................................39 2.1.1: The Sumerians ................................................................................................................................39 2.1.2: The Assyrians ..................................................................................................................................42 2.2: Akkadian Empire ...................................................................................................................................47 2.2.1: River Valley Civilizations .................................................................................................................47 2.2.2: The Akkadian Empire ......................................................................................................................50 2.2.3: Ur ....................................................................................................................................................54 2.3: Babylonia...............................................................................................................................................59 2.3.1: Babylon ..........................................................................................................................................59 2.3.2: Hammurabi's Code .........................................................................................................................62 2.3.3: Babylonian Culture .........................................................................................................................65 2.3.4: Nebuchadnezzar and the Fall of Babylon .......................................................................................69 3: Early Civilizations .........................................................................................................................................74 3.1: Ancient Societies on the Mediterranean ..............................................................................................74 3.1.1: The Hittites .....................................................................................................................................74 3.1.2: The Phoenicians ..............................................................................................................................77 3.1.3: The Minoans ...................................................................................................................................81 3.2: Ancient Africa .......................................................................................................................................86 3.2.1: Sao ..................................................................................................................................................86 3.2.2: Ancient Carthage ............................................................................................................................88 Boundless URL: Edited 2018: Tillamook Bay Community College 1 3.3: The Ancient Andes ................................................................................................................................93 3.3.1: The Caral Civilization .......................................................................................................................93 3.3.2: The Chavín Civilization ....................................................................................................................95 3.3.3: The Valdivia Culture ........................................................................................................................99 4: Ancient Egypt .............................................................................................................................................103 4.1: Introduction to Ancient Egypt..............................................................................................................103 4.1.1: The Rise of Egyptian Civilization ...................................................................................................103 4.2: The Old Kingdom .................................................................................................................................108 4.2.1: The Old Kingdom ..........................................................................................................................108 4.2.2: The First Intermediate Period .......................................................................................................111 4.3: The Middle Kingdom ...........................................................................................................................117 4.3.1: The Middle Kingdom .....................................................................................................................117 4.3.2: The Second Intermediate Period ..................................................................................................120 4.4: The New Kingdom ...............................................................................................................................125 4.4.1: The New Kingdom .........................................................................................................................125 4.4.2: Hatshepsut....................................................................................................................................129 4.4.3: The Third Intermediate Period......................................................................................................132 4.4.4: The Decline of Ancient Egypt ........................................................................................................136 4.5: Ancient Egyptian Society .....................................................................................................................141 4.5.1: Ancient Egyptian Religion .............................................................................................................141 4.5.2: Ancient Egyptian Art .....................................................................................................................146 4.5.3: Ancient Egyptian Monuments ......................................................................................................151 4.5.4: Ancient Egyptian Trade .................................................................................................................155 4.5.5: Ancient Egyptian Culture ..............................................................................................................158 4.6: Nubia and Ancient Egypt .....................................................................................................................163 4.6.1: Nubia and Ancient Culture ...........................................................................................................163 5: Ancient Greece and the Hellenistic World .................................................................................................167 5.1: Early Periods in Greek History.............................................................................................................167 5.1.1: Greek Dark Ages ............................................................................................................................167 5.1.2: Archaic Greece ..............................................................................................................................170 5.1.3: The Rise of Classical Greece ..........................................................................................................172 5.2: Sparta ..................................................................................................................................................179 5.2.1: Sparta............................................................................................................................................179 5.2.2: Culture in Classical Sparta ............................................................................................................182 5.3: The Persian Wars .................................................................................................................................188 5.3.1: The Persian Wars...........................................................................................................................188 Boundless URL: Edited 2018: Tillamook Bay Community College 2 5.3.2: Effects of the Persian Wars............................................................................................................192 5.4: Athens .................................................................................................................................................197 5.4.1: Athens...........................................................................................................................................197 7.4.2: Athenian Society ...........................................................................................................................200 5.5: Culture in Classical Greece...................................................................................................................204 5.5.1: Classical Greek Philosophy ...........................................................................................................204 5.5.2: Classical Greek Poetry and History ...............................................................................................209 5.5.3: Classical Greek Theater ................................................................................................................213 5.5.4: Classical Greek Architecture .........................................................................................................218 5.5.5: Scientific Advancements in the Classical Period ...........................................................................222 5.6: The Peloponnesian War ......................................................................................................................228 5.6.1: Introduction to the Peloponnesian War .......................................................................................228 5.6.2: Effects of the Peloponnesian War .................................................................................................232 5.7: Macedonian Conquest.........................................................................................................................237 5.7.1: The Rise of the Macedon ..............................................................................................................237 5.7.2: Alexander the Great ......................................................................................................................240 5.7.3: Alexander's Empire .......................................................................................................................243 5.7.4: The Legacy of Alexander the Great ...............................................................................................247 6: The Roman World ......................................................................................................................................255 6.1: The Etruscans ......................................................................................................................................255 6.1.1: The Origins of Etruria ....................................................................................................................255 6.1.2: Etruscan Artifacts .........................................................................................................................259 6.1.3: Etruscan Religion ..........................................................................................................................262 6.2: Early Rome ......................................................................................................................................267 6.2.2: The Seven Kings ............................................................................................................................271 6.2.3: Early Roman Society .....................................................................................................................275 6.3: The Roman Republic ...........................................................................................................................280 6.3.1: The Establishment of the Roman Republic ...................................................................................280 6.3.2: Structure of the Republic ..............................................................................................................283 6.3.3: Roman Society Under the Republic ..............................................................................................287 6.3.4: Art and Literature in the Roman Republic ....................................................................................291 6.3.5: Republican Wars and Conquest ....................................................................................................295 6.3.6: Crises of the Republic....................................................................................................................300 6.4: The Roman Empire ..............................................................................................................................308 6.4.1: Julius Caesar..................................................................................................................................308 6.4.2: Founding of the Roman Empire ....................................................................................................311 Boundless URL: Edited 2018: Tillamook Bay Community College 3 6.4.3: The Pax Romana ...........................................................................................................................314 6.4.4: The Julio-Claudian Emperors.........................................................................................................318 6.4.5: The Last Julio-Claudian Emperors .................................................................................................324 6.5: The Flavian Dynasty ............................................................................................................................332 6.5.1: The Flavian Dynasty ......................................................................................................................332 6.5.2: Military Achievements of the Flavians .........................................................................................337 6.5.3: Eruptions of Vesuvius and Pompeii ..............................................................................................340 6.5.4: Flavian Architecture .....................................................................................................................344 6.5.5: Fall of the Flavian Emperors ........................................................................................................347 6.6: Nerva-Antonine Dynasty .....................................................................................................................354 6.6.1: The Nerva-Antonine Dynasty ........................................................................................................354 6.6.2: Military Successes of the Nerva-Antonine Dynasty ......................................................................358 6.6.3: Art and Culture Under the Nerva-Antonines ................................................................................362 6.7: Christianity and the Late Roman Empire .............................................................................................367 6.7.1: Crises of the Roman Empire .........................................................................................................367 6.7.2: Diocletian and the Tetrarchy .........................................................................................................371 6.7.3: The Rise of Christianity .................................................................................................................375 6.7.4: Constantine ..................................................................................................................................378 6.7.5: The Shift East ................................................................................................................................382 6.7.6: The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire ...................................................................................385 Boundless URL: Edited 2018: Tillamook Bay Community College 4 1: The Study of History and the Rise of Civilization 1.1: The Study of History 1.1.1: Splitting History Periodization—the process of categorizing the past into discrete, quantified, named blocks of time in order to facilitate the study and analysis of history—is always arbitrary and rooted in particular regional perspectives, but serves to organize and systematize historical knowledge. Learning Objective • Analyze the complications inherent to splitting history for the purpose of academic study Key Points • The question of what kind of inquiries historians pose, what knowledge they seek, and how they interpret the evidence that they find remains controversial. Historians draw conclusions from the past approaches to history but in the end, they always write in the context of their own time, current dominant ideas of how to interpret the past, and even subjective viewpoints. • All events that are remembered and preserved in some original form constitute the historical record. The task of historians is to identify the sources that can most usefully contribute to the production of accurate accounts of the past. These sources, known are primary sources or evidence, were produced at the time under study and constitute the foundation of historical inquiry. • Periodization is the process of categorizing the past into discrete, quantified named blocks of time in order to facilitate the study and analysis of history. This results in descriptive abstractions that provide convenient terms for periods of time with relatively stable characteristics. All systems of periodization ...
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